Scenes - History - Analysis - Reference - Report


3rd Bass
    Genre: Golden Age
Label: Sony, Def Jam, CBS
Location: Queens, New York City
Info: Now-defunct groundbreaking white hip-hop group 3rd Bass earned the respect of hiphop listeners around the nation with their intelligent rhymes denigrating commercial hiphop's lyrics. They released one record per year from 1989-1991, The Cactus Album, Cactus Revisited, and Derelicts of Dialect .
A Tribe Called Quest
    Genre: Jazz-Rap
Label: Jive
Location: Queens, New York City
Info: Jazz-influenced rap group who rhymed intelligently over laid-back beats. A Tribe Called Quest's first record, People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths of Rhythm, gained praise for being much more musically and lyrically complex than other hiphop groups at the time. They released five albums total before breaking up in 1998.
    Genre: Jazz-Rap
Label: Ground Control
Location: Los Angeles
Info: A founding member of Freestyle Fellowship, Aceyalone embarked on a solo career after the group's break-up and put out 1995's All Balls Don't Bounce as his debut. Continuing to espouse the conscious ethos of his previous work, the LA rapper employed beats that ranged from the sparse to the jazzy. 1998's A Book of Human Language swells under its own philosophical weight while the 2000 project Haiku d'Etat has him teaming up with former groupmate Mikah 9 and incorporating live instrumention to back up the rhymes. Never one to rest, Aceyalone followed up the effort the next year with Accepted Eclectic.
Aesop Rock
    Label: Def Jux
Location: Manhattan, NY
Info: Aesop Rock began his career in the late 1990's by putting out a stream of independent releases and by building up a cult following on the internet. Float came out in 2000 on Mush Records , which was followed by Labor Days on the Def Jux label. Those looking to get jiggy to Aesop's music will be disappointed as his complex rhymes and sparse beats aren't tailor made for the dance floor. However, listeners wanting to hear just how far an MC can take hiphop in terms of esoteric subject matter and sheer verbosity are in for a treat.
    Genre: Jazz-Rap
Label: Koch International, Gee Street
Location:  New York
Info: Afu-Ra's Rastafarian religion leads him to rap about social issues and how to change things for the better, rather than resorting to the violent and materialistic lyrics that some rappers use. His frenetic, jazzy style of rap is similar to his mentor's, Jeru the Damaja. His first record, Body of Life Force, was released in 2000.
    Label: Koch
Location: Queens, NY
Info: In the early 1990's Akinyele begin rapping in the fertile Queens scene with the likes of Large Professor and Nas among his associates. The 1993 album Vagina Diner became a underground classic and the years following found Ak soundly cementing himself as a poster boy for porno rap as illustrated by the success of his dirty frat-boy party anthem "Put It In Your Mouth," the title track off his 1996 EP.
All City
    Label: Armee
Location: Brooklyn, NY
Info: J. Mega and Greg Valentine were veteran undergound rappers who joined forces after two especially crowd-pleasing performances at the Lyricist Lounge. Their collaborative album Metropolis Gold was released in 1998 on the Armee label and illustrated a problem concerning the output of many underground MC's - a gift for deftly displaying lyrical skills through clever boasting, but somehow ignoring rap's distinctive narrative elements.
All Natural
    Genre: Turntablism
Label: Thrill Jockey
Info: Capital D and Tone B formed All Natural in 1996 and released their debut album No Additives, No Preservatives (1997) and on their own label before being picked up by Thrill Jockey for their second LP, Second Nature in 1998. They're involved in Chicago's Family Tree Crew, which includes such acts as The Molemen. Positive raps, turntable genius and jazz loops help to define All Natural's sound.
    Genre: Jazz-Rap
Info: Anticon is a crew consisting of many DJs and MCs who create music in various permutations. They are spread across North America (Sage Francis from the East Coast of the U.S., Buck 65 from Nova Scotia, Canada, Slug from Minnesota) and as a group, cover most of the genres discussed on this site. Frenetic rapping and heavy beats characterize most Anticon tracks, although turntable skills and jazz loops also make appearances.
Anti-Pop Consortium
    Genre: Turntablism
Label: 75 Ark, Warp
Location: New York
Info: The Anti-Pop Consortium formed in 1997 in a direct effort to counter commercial rap. Priest, Beans, M. Sayyid, and E. Blaize use turntablism and witty lyrics on their debut LP, The Tragic Epilogue(2000) to show the inanity of modern commercial rap. They have also released Arrhythmia (2002)which continues their attack on modern life and commercialism.
Athletic Mic League
    Label: Subterraneous
Location: Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Info: This group of MCs (Tres Styles, 14K, Buff, Vital, Texture, and Grand Cee ) drop laid-back, slow rhymes over electronic beats. They released their first record in 1999 and have since followed up with several LPs and EPs.
Audio Two
    Genre: Golden Age
Label: Atlantic, First Priority
Location: Brooklyn, New York City
Info:  MC Lyte's brothers Milk and Gizmo Dee rap over laid back beats. They brag about their rap ability and sexual power; can be see as forerunners of ghetto-tech, except they do not use the heavy bass sounds associated with ghetto-tech. Their first LP, What More Can I Say? was released in 1988, and they followed it with I Don't Care (1990) and The First Dead Indian (1992) before breaking up.
    Genre: Jazz-Rap
Label: Uptown/Universal, Motown, EMI, Capitol
Location: Brooklyn, New York City
Info: AZ mined the same territory as gangsta rappers on his debut LP, Doe or Die (1995). However, his intelligent, well-crafted lyrics set him apart from that genre. The music on AZ's tracks is jazzy and complex, which compliments his laid-back rapping.He is a member of The Firm, a group that includes Foxy Brown, Nas, and Nature as MCs, and Dr. Dre and the Trackmasters supplying the beats.
    Genre: Jazz-Rap
Label: Goodvibe, Capitol, Chrysalis
Location: Philadelphia
Info: Bahamadia focuses on social messages while rapping over tracks that borrow from jazz and turntable masters. She released her first LP, Kollage in 1996, and since then has worked with The Roots, Morcheeba, and Guru.
    Genre: Jazz-Rap
Label: Imago
Location: Maryland
Info: Basehead is a DIY rap group masterminded by Michael Ivey. He borrows lyrical rhythms from rap, scratching from turntablism, and guitar sounds from 1960's folk artists to create a sound unlike any other group. These sources combine to form a laid-back, jazzy, ambient sound showcased on Basehead's 1992 debut LP, Play With Toys.
Beastie Boys
    Label:  Def Jam/Columbia
Location:  NYC
    Genre: Electro
Label: Relativity, Violator, Loud
Location: Queens, New York City
Info: Al Tariq, Psycho Les, and JuJu comprise this Latino hiphop group. Looped keyboards, fast-paced rapping, and vocoded effects are the best way to describe their music, which also includes nods to other Latino rappers and is partially inspired by Latin rhythms. Their first record, Intoxicated Demons, was released in 1993 after The Beatnuts gained attention for their collaborations with Monie Love, Cypress Hill, and Naughty by Nature.
Big Daddy Kane
    Genre: Golden Age
Label: Warner Brothers, Cold Chillin', MCA, Blackheart
Location: Brooklyn, New York City
Info: Releasing his first record, Long Live The Kane, in 1988, Big Daddy Kane solidified his place in rap history. He raps about topics as diverse as black militancy, his Muslim faith, his sexual proclitivies and still manages to insult other rappers. Big Daddy Kane's frenetic rapping and his use of turntablists for backing music helped to define the genre of rap, but his lyrical skills pushed rap much further than its origins.
Binary Star
    Genre: Electro
Label: Subterraneous/Trc
Location:  Pontiac, Michigan, USA
Info: Binary Star's first LP, Masters of the Universe, showcases their slow, steady rapping and their jazz and electronic-inspired beats. Senim Silla and the Anonymous use samples from all kinds of music, including classical and folk, to create their unique sound.
Black Eyed Peas
    Genre: Jazz-Rap
Label: Interscope
Location: Los Angeles
Info: Rappers Will I Am, Apl de Ap and Taboo make up Black Eyed Peas, an upbeat and uplifting hip hop group. Behind The Front (1998) marked their first appearance on the scene, bringing a danceable electro element to jazz-inspired hiphop. Their second record, Bridging The Gap (2000) featured a galaxy of superstar guests, from Esthero to Wyclef Jean.
Black Moon
    Label: Duck Down
Location: Brooklyn, NY
Info: Members of the Bootcamp Click collective, Black Moon is composed of MC's Buckshot and 5 Ft. Accelerator and DJ Evil Dee. As prototypical East Coast gangsta rappers, the crew delves into the dark underbelly of street life and tell violent tales of drugs and gunplay. Black Moon's nihilistic debut Enta Da Stage was released in 1993 and benefited much from Evil Dee's harsh but jazzy production. The six year drought that followed was broken by War Zone, a old-school throwback that featured cameos by Busta Rhymes and Q-Tip, as well as other members of the Bootcamp Click.
Black Sheep
    Genre: Golden Age
Location: The Bronx, New York City
Website: Polygram, Mercury
Info: Dres and Mista Lawnge debuted as Black Sheep with 1991's LP A Wolf In Sheep's Clothing. Their explicit, intelligent, angry, frenetic rapping over sparse, "Golden Age of rap"-inspired beats has gained them critical acclaim but little airplay or mass appeal.
    Genre: Jazz-Rap
Label: Solesides
Location: San Francisco
Info: Gift of Gab MCs and writes the lyrics for Chief Excel's DJ tracks. Their tracks sample jazz and turntablists of the past, and pair the resulting laid-back beats with intelligent, literate lyrics (including one track made with famous poet Nikki Giovanni on their first LP, Nia, in 2000).
Blazhay Blazhay
    Genre: Downtempo
Label: Fader
Location: Brooklyn, New York City
Info: This hiphop group was formed in 1985 by DJ and producer PF Cuttin' and rapper Outloud. They chose to remain behind the scenes for many years, producing for other artists (including Masta Ace) before their first LP, Blah, Blah, Blah was released in 1996, containing the hit song "Danger." Smart, angry lyrics over sparse, eerie tracks mark Blahzay Blahzay's distinctive sound.
Blood of Abraham
    Label: Atomic Pop
Location: Los Angeles
Info: Made up of two Jewish MC's from LA, Benyad and Mazik, Blood of Abraham were originally signed to Eazy-E's Ruthless Records and released the album Future Profits in 1993. Languishing after the death of their mentor two years later, they resurfaced in 2000 with the album Eyedollartree, which featured cameos from Kool Keith and from Black Eyed Peas. Fun fact: their former DJ, Brett "Epic" Mazur went on to join pop rap/metal trainwreck Crazy Town.
Bootcamp Click
    Label: Duck Down
Location: Brooklyn, NY
Info: A ven diagram would be useful in describing the lineup of Bootcamp Click, a conglomorate of MC's with previously-established careers as parts of other groups, including Black Moon, Originoo Gunn Clapaz, Cocoa Brovaz, Heltah Skeltah, and Bucktown Juveniles. Dedicated to maintaining its street image, they liberally employ militaristic imagery and gritty, hard-hittting beats. 1997's For the People showcased the talents of the indvidual members and composite groups and 2000's Basic Training was a greatest-hits retrospective.
Brand Nubian
    Label: Elektra/Asylum, Elektra, Arista
Location: New Rochelle, New York
Info: Comprised of Grand Puba, Lord Jamar, Sadat X, and DJ Alamo, Brand Nubian released One for All in 1990, creating a jazz- and soul-influenced sound that served as a platform for their positive, fast-paced rhymes about their Muslim faith and the dangers of drugs. Grand Puba and DJ Alamo left the group but the other members added DJ Sincere and released three more records of original material.
Cali Agents
    Genre: Jazz-Rap
Label: Ground Control
Location: San Francisco
Info: Rasco and Planet Asia released their first album How The West Was Won, in 2000. They rap about anti-commercialism over sparse beats with jazz-influenced backing tracks.
    Genre: Freestyle
Label: Uptown/Universal
Location: New Jersey
Info: Canibus was well-known for his skills as a freestyler before he guested on tracks by many of hiphop's biggest stars including LL Cool J, Wyclef Jean, Ras Kass, and The Lost Boyz, before releasing his debut record, Can-I-Bus, in 1998. His deep, almost gruff style of rapping, along with his cutting, intelligent lyrics, lends his tracks a distinctive flavor.
Cannibal Ox
    Label: Def Jux
Location: Harlem, New York City 
Info: Vast Aire and Vordul Megilah began Cannibal Ox in the late 1990s in response to the growing commercialization of rap. They rejected the materialism of other rap artists, choosing instead to focus on their beats and rhymes. Their first record, The Cold Vein, was released in 2001 and drew comparisons to another groundbreaking hiphop record, Wu-Tang Clan's 36 Chambers.
    Genre: Freestyle
Label: Jive, Red Urban
Location: Oakland, California 
Info: A member of Del Tha Funkee Homosapien's Hieroglyphics crew, Casual released 1994's Fear Itself and was immediately successful in underground circuits. His hard-hitting, funny, anti-materialism lyrics, coupled with a remarkable ability to freestyle, combine with the slow, psychedelic beats to create tracks unlike any other MC.
Chino XL
    Genre: Horrorcore
Label: Warner Brothers, American
Location: New Jersey
Info: At age 17, the half-Puerto Rican, half-African-American Chino XL was a founding member of The Art of Origin, the hiphop group credited with creating the horrorcore genre. He later moved to debut album, Here To Save You All, was released in 1996 and was immediately popular. Chino's lyrics are hilarious, dissing everyone from Madonna to (American Records owner)Rick Rubin. He's now involved with a crew known as Gravitation (which includes Ragedy Man, Ab Style, and Deleon) and is produced by B-Wiz, the co-creator of the rhythmic, vaguely creepy, bizarre sample-laden tracks that fill his records.
    Genre: Freestyle
Label: Priority
Location: Toronto, Canada
Info: This Canadian MC was signed to a major label before he had released more than two singles. He released his first album, Ice Cold, in 1999. The sexual explicitness of some of his lyrics made it easy for critics to savage him, but fans responded by purchaing enough of his records to have him signed to a distribution deal by Priority Records. He was the first Canadian MC to have an American company distributing his records. His crew, Circle, is one of the major players in the Canadian hiphop scene. Choclair's music is marked by funk- and West Coast-influenced beats and freestyle skills that are unmatched in Canada.
    Genre: Turntablism
Label: Ninja Tune
Location: London
Info: Two DJs, Jonathan More and Matt Black, started making music in the mid 1980's. They released their first EP, Say Kids, What Time Is It? in 1987. It was the first all-sample record made in the UK and helped to revitalize the art of turntablism. In addition to releasing many records, Coldcut started the Ninja Tune record label, home to many of today's artistic turntablists like Kid Koala, The Herbaliser, Funki Porcini, DJ Food, and DJ Vadim. Their unique approach to creating sounds-- their motto is "fuck dance, let's art"-- has resulted in fame in underground circles and hugely popular club shows in their native England.
    Label: Relativity, MCA
Location: Chicago
Info: Originally known as Common Sense, this Chicago-based rapper broke out with his 1997 album, One Day It'll All Make Sense. He'd released two albums before under his old moniker, but this record included guest stars like Lauryn Hill of the Fugees, Q-Tip of A Tribe Called Quest, De La Soul, and members of The Roots. Common's ability to rhyme intelligently about his dislike of commercial hiphop over jazzy, laid-back beats have resulted in comparisons to artists like Jurassic 5 and Brand Nubian.
Company Flow
    Genre: Turntablism
Label: Rawkus, Def Jux
Location: Queens, New York City
Info: Company Flow is MCs and producers El-P, Big Jus, and DJ Mr. Len. They created their own record company, Official Recordings, in the mid 1990's. Their fast-paced, high energy, jumpy raps are intense and intelligent, and are matched by DJ Mr. Len's sample-heavy, dense, hyper and hypnotic beats.
Coup, The
    Genre: Electro
Label: Capitol, 75 Ark
Location: Oakland, California
Info: The Coup formed in the early 1990s with DJ Pam the Funkstress and MCs Boots and E-Roc. They were highly political (Boots later went on to lead the Young Comrades, a group of young political and social activists in the Oakland area) and followed in the steps of such groups as Public Enemy and K.R.S.-One. Their 1993 debut, Kill My Landlord, espoused views like social conscientiousness and leftist political actions. Their blend of social rap poked fun at commercialism, materialism, and social problems like prostitution, drug abuse, and alcoholism, all over funk/electro sample based tracks.
    Genre: Golden Age
Label: Tommy Boy, P-Vine, DITC
Location: New York City
Info: D.I.T.C. is an acronym for "Diggin' in the Crates," and listening to their music, it's obvious that this collective of DJs and MCs spend much of their time doing just that. Diamond D, one of the group's DJs and producers, began his musical career by DJing with Afrika Bambaataa's Zulu Nation. Other members of the group include MCs Fat Joe, AG, Lord Finesse, and O.C., along with DJ/producers Showbiz and Buckwild. In addition to releasing five albums as a collective ( Live at Tramps New York Vols. 1, 2, & 3 (1999), D.I.T.C. (2000), and Worldwide (2001)), all have released solo records and produced/guested on records by some of hiphop's biggest stars (Dr. Dre, KRS-One, and The Fugees, among others). The group included one other MC, Big L, who was killed in before releasing his second solo album. Despite this loss, the group has continued to create music that draws upon the basics of New York hiphop: slow, clever lyrics delivered over slickly produced samples that alternately evoke the "Golden Age" of early 1980's hiphop and downtempo artists of the late 1990's.
da Beatminerz
    Label: Priority
Location: Brooklyn, New York City
Info: The five producer/DJs who are da Beatminerz had long careers before joining forces in the late 1990's to create some of the most innovative beats in hiphop. DJ Evil Dee, Mr. Walt, Rich Black, Chocolate Ty, and Baby Paul have chosen to stay behind the console for their projects, producing for MCs as varied as The Pharcyde, Dilated Peoples, House of Pain, and Bahamadia, as well as releasing their own album (2001's Brace 4 Impak) featuring all guest MCs. The tracks they create are hard-hitting, including lots of bass and an emphasis on the kick drum sounds. The sparse tracks allow each MC that they're working with plenty of room to improvise around the beat and showcase their own style of rapping.
Da Ruckus
    Location: Detroit
Dayton Family
    Label: Relativity, Po' Broke Records
Location: Flint, MI 
De La Soul
    Label: Tommy Boy
Location:  Long Island
Info: This trio (Posdnous, Trugoy, and Mase) released their first album, 3 Feet High and Rising, in 1989. Produced by Prince Paul, 3 Feet High was a dizzying collage of skits, strange samples, and positive lyrics--all of which put De La Soul in a category of their own. Together with the like-minded Jungle Brothers and ATribe Called Quest, De La Soul began the Native Tongues Movement. All of their albums can be considered classics; from the frenetic 3 Feet High and Rising to the sarcastic De La Soul Is Dead, from the jazz-influenced Buhloone Mind State to the more recent Stakes is High and Art Official Intelligence albums.
Dead Prez
Deep Puddle Dynamics
Definition of Sound
Del Tha Funkee Homosapien
    Label: Elektra / Hieroglyphics Underground
Location: California
Info: Del's been rapping since 1990, when he guested with his cousin Ice Cube's group, Da Lench Mob. After deciding to strike out on his own, he formed The Hieroglyphics Crew. Del's music is characterized by quirky, creative lyrics with dark and hard beats.
Deltron 3030
    Label: 75 Ark
Info: A side-project consisting of Del Tha Funkee Homosapien (AKA Deltron Zero), producer Dan "The Automator" Nakumura (AKA the Cantankerous Captain Aptos), and turntablist Kid Koala (AKA Skiznod the Boy Wonder), Deltron 3030 was a sci-fi concept album released in 2000. An example of the constant collaboration between hip-hop artists, the album chronicles the intergalactic journey undertaken by the trio, the only surviving earthlings left in the 31st Century.
Digable Planets
Dilated Peoples
Disco D
    Genre: Ghetto-Tech
Label: GTI
Location: Detroit
Info: Disco D a.k.a David Shaymen is involved in Ghetto Tech music and also happens to be a student at the University of Michigan. He has a couple hits to his name but his most famous song to date is D-Down.
Disco Daddy and Captain Rapp
    Label: Rappers Rapp
Location: Los Angeles
Info: Disco Daddy and Captain Rapp were two MCs from Los Angeles. They released very few records ("The Gigolo Rapp" in 1981 and "Badd Times" in 1986) but were essential to the early L.A. scene and the origins of electro-rap. Captain Rapp was a member of Uncle Jam's Army, an early 1980's L.A.-based crew, but was not showcased on Uncle Jam's records. He traveled to New York in an attempt to become an MC there, but was unsuccessful and bowed out of the music business.
Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy
DJ Assault
    Location: Detroit
DJ Cam
DJ Faust
    Label: Bomb Records
Location: Washington, D.C./Atlanta, GA
Info: DJ Faust started scratching records in Washington, DC in the early 90's, where he met his girlfriend (one of the few female DJ's in the modern hip hop scene), DJ Shortee. The two moved to Atlanta in 1996, where Faust honed his skills, winning the 1996 Zulu Nation Battle Clash and competing in the First Annual ITF World Championship. He released the first full-length all turntablism album, Man or Myth, in 1998. Faust has continued to refine his craft by concentrating on turntablism as a way of making music, not just as a novelty. He released the first full-length all turntablism album, Man or Myth, in 1998. Faust and Shortee were married in September 2001; the duo cut up records as well as cake in a special performance.
DJ Food
DJ Godfather
    Location: Detroit
DJ Honda
DJ Krush
    Genre: Turntablism
Label: Axiom, Shadow, A&M
Location: Japan
Info: While growing up in Japan, DJ Krush (real name: Hideaki Ishii) taught himself to DJ after seeing the movie Wild Style. He's now one of the most experienced and respected DJs in Japan and the world. His soundscapes cover almost all the aural territory you're likely to hear, from psychedelic and happy to gloomy and ominous. He's recently begun to collaborate with DJs and MCs from around the world, including The Roots, DJ Shadow, and Guru. His first internationally-released record, 1994's Strictly Turntablized showcased his inventive scratching techniques and gained him cult status as an underground turntablist superstar in the United States.
DJ Magic Mike
    Location: Miami
DJ Rectangle
DJ Revolution
DJ Screw
DJ Shadow
    Label: Mo' Wax, Quannum
Location:  Davis, CA
Info:  DJ Shadow (aka Josh Davis) has demonstrated his sampling skills on several remixes, singles, and guest appearances, but his 1996 debut Endtroducing... is still spinning heads. Shadow excels at finding rare beats and weaving them together into dense, complex sound collages--you might hear a Baroque organ fugue, a seventies funk breakbeat, some folksy acoustic guitar, and a snatch of obscure movie dialogue all in the span of a few seconds. Shadow started SoleSides, a hip hop collective, with like-minded Bay Area groups Blackalicious and Latyrx in 1997.
DJ Spooky
DJ Vadim
Dr. Dooom
Dr. Octagon
Dream Warriors
    Genre: Jazz-Rap
Label: EMI Music Canada 
Location: Toronto, Candad
Info: King Lou and Capital Q formed Dream Warriors in the late 1980's and released And Now, The Legacy Begins in 1991. They were the pioneers of the jazz-rap style and have been compared to De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, and Digable Planets. Although they were mildly successful in the mid 1990's, the group broke up after their third and final album, The Master Plan (1996) was released only in Canada to a unappreciative audience.
Drunken Master
    Location: Detroit 
Eightball and MJG
    Location: Detroit
Freddie Foxxx
Freestyle Fellowship
    Label: Beats & Rhymes
Location: Los Angeles
Info: This LA-based group emerged in the early 1990's and espoused a politically-conscious Afrocentric ethos that bucked the gangsta trend established by their fellow Southern Californians at the time. Comprised of Aceyelone, Mikah 9, P.E.A.C.E., and Self Jupiter, Freestyle Fellowship put out their debut release, To Whom It May Concern in 1991. Shortly after 1993's Inner City Griots, Self Jupiter was incarcerated and the group's career stalled. 1998 saw their reunion tour and after a sporadic output of singles, the crew released their third album Temptations in 2001.
Gang Starr
Goodie Mob
Grand Puba
    Genre: Freestyle
Label: Elektra/Asylum, Elektra
Location: New Rochelle, New York
Info: Grand Puba's rhymes about his sexual prowess, his sadness about social ills like crime and drugs, and his unshakable belief in the Nation of Islam's teachings were first showcased on his 1992 debut record, Reel to Reel. His skills had been honed as an MC in the Masters of Ceremony crew in the late 1980's and as a producer/DJ/MC on Brand Nubian's One For All(1990). His slow, steady rapping over R&B styled, bass-heavy beats is reminiscent of West Coast hiphop.
Grand Wizard Theodore
Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five
    Genre: Horrorcore
Label: V2, Gee Street, Empire Musicwerks
Location: New York City
Info: Gravediggaz, a side project consisting of RZA (from Wu-Tang Clan), Prince Paul and Frukwan (of Stetsasonic), and Poetic (a producer who has worked with Shabazz the Disciple and Prince Paul), is one of the groups that helps define the genre of horrorcore. The music is a mix of heavy bass beats and hardcore gangsta-style rap (borrowed from hiphop) and guitar riffs borrowed from heavy metal. Their 1994 album, Six Feet Deep, was a minor hit and helped to popularize horrorcore as a genre.
Group Home
    Label: Hiero Imperium, Black Music
Location: San Francisco, California
Info: This collective of MCs and DJs includes several big underground names, like Del tha Funkee Homosapien, Casual, Souls of Mischief, and Pep Love. The collective focuses on making intelligent music-- both lyrically and instrumentally. Their first record as a crew, 3rd Eye Vision, came out in 1998, and featured verbally intensive, upbeat rapping over psychedelic-inspired beats.
Ill Al Skratch
Intelligent Hoodlum
Jedi Mind Tricks
Jeru the Damaja
    Label: Payday, Knowsavage
Location: Brooklyn, NY
Info: This fiery Brooklynite hooked up with Gangstarr's Guru and DJ Premier in high school and ended up making a cameo appearance on the group's 1992 song, "I'm the Man." The following year Jeru opened for Gangstarr on their tour and his solo debut Come Clean was released. A self-styled hiphop prophet, Jeru preaches against the rampant commercialism of hiphop culture and enjoyed underground success with his 1994 album The Sun Rises in the East. Two years later, Jeru resurfaced with Wrath of the Math and gave fans more of his trademark jazzy, minimalist sound and anti-materialist diatribes.
Jungle Brothers
Jurassic 5
    Label: Elektra/Asylum
Location: New York
Info: K.M.D. got their start by colloborating with 3rd Bass, whose classic single, "Gas Face" owed much to the creative contributions by MC Zevlove X. 1991 saw the release of K.M.D.'s debut album Mr. Hood, which mixed lighthearted humor and brash political rhetoric. The group suffered the loss of DJ Sub-Roc in 1993 after he was fatally struck by a car. The follow-up album, Black Bastards espoused a virulent black nationalist stance and cover-art depicting a Sambo-like cartoon character being lynched. In response, K.M.D. were dropped from Elektra and the recording never officially released until 2001, though it was heavily bootlegged in underground circles. K.M.D. ceased to function effectively as Zevlove X retreated into obscurity until the emergence of his alter-ego MF Doom in 1997.
Kardinal Offishall
    Label: MCA
Location: Toronto
Info: After releasing the single Husslin' in 2000, Kardinal Offishall signed to major label MCA which put out his debut album Quest for Fire: Firestarter, Vol. 1 the following year. Representing Toronto, Kardi heavily incorporates dancehall reggae and West Indian slang into his songs, a reflection of his Caribbean heritage.
Kid Capri
Kid Frost
Kid Koala
    Location: Montreal
Kool G Rap
Kool Keith
Kurtis Blow
    Genre: Golden Age
Label: Mercury, ZYX
Location: Harlem, New York City
Info: One of the first ever MCs, Kurtis Blow is enormously influential and well-respected within the hiphop community. His good looks, charisma, and clearly audible excitement for rap helped to make him one of hiphop's first stars. His first record, 1980's Kurtis Blow, was the first hiphop record to be released by a major label. His second single from that record, "The Breaks," went gold. Blow was also one of the first rappers to record political lyrics, in "Hard Times," a song about poverty. His style, characterized by slow, steady, bragging raps over a sparse, uptempo beat, was an inspiration to many hiphop acts including Run-D.M.C., Grandmaster Flash, and Public Enemy. His rapping style began to sound old by the mid 1980's, and while Blow has not released an album since 1988, he has been active in hiphop, hosting a radio show in Los Angeles and writing extensive liner notes for Rhino Records' "The History of Rap" box set.
LA the Darkman
Large Professor
Last Emperor
Leaders of the New School
Live Human
Living Legends
    Label: Varies-- each group is on another
Location: California
Info: Group of MCs and DJs who create hip-hop together. Groups formed include:  Mystik Journeymen, CMA, G&E Music, Moonrocks, 3 Melancholy Gypsys. They are a true collective-- not only making music (and zines about the scene) together, but helping each other with promotions, marketing, and producing.
    Label: DNA (Warner Music Hong Kong)
Location: Hong Kong
Info: LMF (Lazy Motha Fucka) are the originators of "Canto-hiphop"...they produce and record all of their own music, and their lyrics (reportedly) attack the conservative HK status quo.
Loot Pack
Lord Finesse
Lords of the Underground
    Genre: Freestyle
Label: Pendulum, Elektra/Asylum, Jersey Kidz
Location: North Carolina
Info: Newark, New Jersey-born Doitall and Mr. Funke met Ohio-based DJ Lord Jazz in college in North Carolina and the three hooked up to form Lords of the Underground. Their high-energy rapping is matched by Lord Jazz's fast beats and dreamy accompaniments, and they often name their influences in their songs (Chaka Khan, Public Enemy, Beastie Boys). Their lyrics are socially conscious and decry the gangsta images created in much of mainstream hiphop. Their first record, Here Come The Lords (1993) was met with great success, and they even received a an award for best rap group from BET. However, their second album (1994's Keepers of The Funk) was panned, but they have soldiered on, releasing Resurrection in 1999.
Maestro Fresh Wes
Main Source
    Label: Sleeping Bag, Capitol
Location: New York
Info: Jamaican-born Kurtis "Mantronik" Khaleel began his musical career deejaying in the New York scene in the late 1970's and after forming a partnership with MC Tee, signed a deal with the independent label Sleeping Bag Records under the name Mantronix. Mantronik became an immensely influential producer by relying heavily on synthesizers and creatively using his sampler. The futuristic 1985 debut LPMantronix: The Album was hailed as a visionary work and became enshrined as a quintessential New York hiphop album. The release contained the danceable hits, "Fresh is the Word," "Needle to the Groove," and "Bassline." The 1987 follow-up Music Madness managed to maintain the hype surrounding the duo, paving the way for their contract with Capitol Records, which put out In Full Effect the following year. Mantronix proved especially popular in England and was directly responsible for several locally produced hits that adopted the Mantronik sound, such as "Pump Up the Volume" by M/A/R/R/S and "Theme from S'Express" by S'Express. MC Tee's decision to enlist in the Air Force led to the recruitment of Bryce Luvah and DJ Dee for musical support. As Mantronix entered the 1990's, however, their sound became club-oriented and discernably driven by the rhythms of house music. 1991's The Incredible Sound Machine proved to be the group's final release. After a period of obscurity, Mantronik reemerged to continue working as a producer and remixer for an array of hiphop and electronic music acts.
Marley Marl
Masta Ace
MC Paul Barman
MC Solaar
Medina Green
MF Doom
    Label: Fondle 'Em
Location: New York
Info: After the demise of the politically-conscious K.M.D. in the 1990's, frontman Zevlove X returned to the scene in 1997 in the guise of a mysterious MC who freestyled at New York clubs wearing a stocking on his face. The identity of the rapper, who takes his name from Marvel Comics supervillain Dr. Doom, became apparent soon enough as his singles featured 1980's style drum tracks and references to deceased K.M.D. DJ Sub-Roc. Adopting the name King Ghidora, Doom then assembled an MC posse called the Monster Island Click, whose other members Megalon, Rodan, Kong, KD, X-Ray, and Jet Jaguar take inspiration from Godzilla films. Doom's 1999 album, Operation Doomsday was noted for sonic adventureousness as it featured heavy experimentation with rhyme speed and even sampled music from Scooby Doo.
Mic Geronimo
Mobb Deep
    Location: Queens, NY
Molemen, The
    Genre: Turntablism
Location: Chicago
Info: Crew from Chicago with slow beats and fast rapping.
Mos Def
Mountain Brothers
    Label: Pimpstrut
Location: Philadelphia
Info: The Mountain Brothers are an Asian-American hip-hop outfit from Philadelphia whose debut came in 1999 with Self: Volume 1. Their sound is laid-back and funky and their use of live instrumentation recalls that of their fellow hometown heroes The Roots.
Mr. Lif
    Location: Boston
Mykill Miers
Organized Konfusion
    Location: Atlanta
    Label: Kitty-Yo
Location: Canadian
Info: Experimental Canadian artist (on a German label). Crossover between ghetto tech and downtempo, the sexually explicit Peaches turns misogynistic rap lyrics upside down. Continues the female MC tradition begun by Yo-Yo, Queen Latifah, MC Lyte, etc.
Peanut Butter Wolf
    Location: San Mateo, CA
People Under the Stairs
    Label: Edeltone
Location: Los Angeles
Info:  "In Living Color" dancers Imani Wilcox, Tre "Slimkid" Hardson, and Romye "Booty Brown" Robinson hooked up with Derrick "Fatlip" Stewart at an LA music teacher's apartment, where they later met producer J-Swift. Out of this environment the Pharcyde was born. Debuting with the 1992 LP Bizarre Ride II the Pharcyde, the crew became beloved for the laid-back, funky sound that was also associated with De La Soul and A Tribe Called Quest, both of whom they toured with. After moving from South Central LA to the trendy Silverlake/Los Feliz neighborhood, they released 1995's Labcabincalifornia. A five-year hiatus was marked by a Fat Lip's burgeoning solo career. In 2000 the remaining trip released Plain Rap, which mined the same musical vein as their previous album.
Pharoahe Monch
Planet Asia
Poor Righteous Teachers
Prince Paul
Princess Superstar
Public Enemy
    Location: New York
Info: One of the most famously outspoken hip-hop groups ever. Their lyrics are brutal and honest ("Paint the White House Black") and their beats are just as brutal.
    Label: Mo' Wax
Info: This virtual indie rap supergroup was formed in 1992 in Davis, CA. Originally known as Solesides, its members consisted of DJ Shadow, Gift of Gab, Chief Xcel, Lateef, and Lyrics Born and spawned a record label of the same name. Chief Xcel and Gift of Gab began collaborating as Blackalicious in 1994 and DJ Shadow released his solo debut two years later. The group's change to its current name occurred with its 1999 album Quannum Spectrum. Guest stars included El-P, Jurassic 5, and Souls of Mischief and singles include "I Changed My Mind," "Bombonyall," and "The Extravaganza"
Queen Latifah
RA the Rugged Man
Rah Digga
Ras Kass
Roots Manuva
Roots, The
    Location: Philadelphia
Royce Da 5'9
    Location: Detroit
Sadat X
Sage Francis
Schooly D
    Location: Philadelphia
Shabaam Sahdeeq
Showbiz and AG
Sir Menelik
Slum Village
    Location: Detroit
    Location: Brooklyn, NY
Smut Peddlers
Souls of Mischief
Special Ed
Spoonie Gee
    Genre: Golden Age
Label: Tuff City, Ol Skool Flava
Location: New York City
Info: Born as Gabriel Jackson, Spoonie began to rap in the early 80's when his uncle, a producer, got him a record deal with Enjoy! records. He soon finagled a deal for his friends, the Treacherous Three (which included Kool Moe Dee) and recorded a split single. His side, "Love Rap," was a hit and earned him a reputation as "the love rapper." He recorded several other popular records with other groups (including a collaboration with all-female group Sequence) before dropping out of the music business in the late 1980's.
Starang Wondah
    Genre: Golden Age
Label: Tommy Boy
Location: Brooklyn, New York City
Info: Formed in 1981 by DJs Prince Paul, D.B.C., and Wise, and MCs Delite, Daddy-O, and Fruitkwan, Stetsasonic was one of the first hiphop groups to include a measure of positive social consciousness in their songs. They used a live band for recording and live shows (D.B.C. was an accomplished drummer before joining the group) and were an influential force on jazz-rap fusion and almost every other kind of hiphop-- their songs have been sampled many times. They only release three full-length albums (1986's On Fire, 1988's In Full Gear, and 1991's Blood, Sweat, & No Tears) before breaking up. All of the members went on to pursue careers in hiphop, many becoming producers for influential groups like De La Soul, Big Daddy Kane, and Queen Latifah.
Stretch Armstrong
Styles of Beyond
Swollen Members
    Location: Vancouver/Los Angeles
Talib Kweli
Tha Liks
    Location: Los Angeles
Thirstin Howl the Third
    Label: Rawkus, Self-released
Location: Brooklyn, New York City
Info: Thirstin Howl III, a member of the Lo-Life Posse, began to make his unique brand of lo-fi, Spanish and English tracks in the late 1990s. He won The Source Hiphop Magazine's Best Unsigned MC contest in 1997, and self-released his first record, Skillospher, in the same year. His hilarious lyrical acrobatics made his records popular in underground circles, but he didn't get a record deal until the release of Skillionaire in 1999, when he was noticed by Rawkus records and signed. That resulted in 2001's Serial Skilla. Thirstin has collaborated with Eminem and Mos Def, and is also a businessman, creating Skillionaire Enterprises to release his music and to help him explore his other interests, like fashion design and animated movies.
Tony Touch
Trends of Culture
Ugly Duckling
    Label: 1500 Records
Location: Long Beach, California
Info: This downtempo group of MCs from California released their first EP, Fresh Mode in 1999, following the success of their single of the same name. MCs Andycat and Dizzy are backed by their DJ, Young Einstein, and have been compared to De La Soul and The Pharcyde. Their second album, Journey to Anywhere, was released in 2000 and has gained them critical acclaim, although the US public has been slow to accept them.
Ultramagnetic MC's
    Label:  Next Plateau, Mercury
Location: Bronx, NY
Info: The Ultramagnetic MC's emerged out of the Bronx in the mid-1980's to stake their place in the "Golden Age" pantheon alongside groups like Public Enemy, Eric B and Rakim, and Boogie Down Productions. The Ultras, composed of MC's Ced Gee and Kool Keith and DJ Moe Love, eschewed the fun-filled vibe of party rap and instead presented listeners with crisp, funky production and gritty, street level rhymes peppered with obscure cultural references. After released a slew of 12" singles, the outfit delivered their revered debut LP Critical Beatdown in 1988.
Unsung Heroes
World Famous Beat Junkies
    Location: La
Info:  This DJ crew is the shit!!
    Label: Relativity
Location: Los Angeles
Info: A member of the Likwit crew, a loose collective of West Coast rappers that also include Tha Liks (nee Tha Alkoholiks), Defari, and King T, Xzibit carved out a solid reputation as top-notch underground lyricist. X's talent couldn't keep him in obscurity for long and his 1996 major label debut, At the Speed of Life was very well-received critically. The solid 1998 follow-up 40 Dayz & 40 Nightz put to rest any fears of a sophomore jinx and further showcased the MC's knack for delivering clever metaphors imbibed with a gruff, street-level brashness. After a cameo on Snoop Dogg's Top Dogg, X was brought under the wing of Dr. Dre, who produced his most commercial effort to date, the 2000 album Restless.


Battle Tapes
    noun. Recordings of battles between MCs, traded by fans.
    noun. Boys who were a part of hiphop culture-- breakdancers, rappers, DJs, graffiti artists-- anyone who enjoyed and celebrated hiphop culture. See also "B-Girls."
    noun. Girls who liked hiphop culture-- graffiti artists, breakdancers, MCs, and DJs-- anyone who celebrated hiphop culture. See also "B-Boys."
    noun. Instrumental sections of songs. DJs would cut between two copies of the same record to extend one short section of a song into a two or three minute jam.
    noun. A group of people who create together-- either music or another part of hiphop culture. There are breakdance crews, graffiti crews, DJs crews, and MC crews. Currently, a "crew" usually refers to a loose collective of like-minded musicians who create together.
    adverb. To produce facial expressions, words, or otherwise suggest, however subtly, that the person you are addressing is slightly lower on the evolutionary scale than pond scum.
Dozens, The
    noun. An old street game that consists of trading clever, sometimes rhymed insults. While usually intended to be harmless, this game can sometimes escalate into violence. This game can be seen as one of the origins of dissing raps. Also known as "signifying" or "toasting" in different parts of the United States.
    verb. Freestyling is MCing without any pre-conceived rhymes. Similar to improvisation in jazz, the MCs will often have a topic or idea in mind, but will create all their lyrics off the top of their head. This is an exceptionally hard skill to hone, and any MCs who excel at this are highly respected.
    noun. An ancient African tradition, the griot is a musician within a village who is an oral historian. The griot must remember times, dates, and places of important events within his or her village's history, and to aid their memory, often use musical accompaniment. The griot's
Mix Tapes
    noun. A cassette tape of songs/freestyles/turntable exhibitions that were traded and sold.
    noun. A certain type of hiphop culture, sharing similar musical styles, dance styles, and graffiti styles. A scene can be created by location ("The East Coast scene") or, be in seperate locations but linked by similar artistic endeavours.
    adverb. 1. A street game that consists of two or more people trading creative, insulting rhymes.(See also The Dozens, Toasting). 2. Descending from "The Signifying Monkey," a salacious, rhyming tale of African origin about a clever monkey who defeats his stronger opponent through intelligence.
    verb. To graffiti one's name or "tag" onto buses, trains, etc.
    noun. 1. A street game of trading insults in a rhyming fashion. See The Dozens or Signifying. 2. A precursor to rapping, originating in Jamaica. MCs began to imitate calypso singers' ability to dis each other by creating complex rhymes instantaneously.


    This can sound like any other form of hiphop, from electro to Golden Age, only they talk about Jesus.
    Slow, trip-hop influenced beats and lazy rapping mark this hiphop subgenre. Its roots are in Britain but there are downtempo artists all around the world.
    Electro is a subgenre of hiphop that took off in the West Coast of the U.S. (although many artists from the East Coast did some proto-electro tracks before the West Coast electro movement took off). It began around the same time as "the Golden Age" on the East Coast and they sound very similar. The only difference is, electro artists are influenced by the first wave of electronic artists, and often use computerized, sythesizer beats and music. Many of the vocals are run through layers of effects, and samples from electronic musicians as well as old soul and funk records are common.
    Making up rhymes on the spot, with or without music backing the vocals. The best freestylers are able to tell a story or be coherent while also being witty, and of course they must stick to the beat and rhyme their lines.
    Dirty Lyrics and High BPMs are the best way to describe this genre.
Golden Age
    Late 80's and early 90's hiphop groups who popularized hiphop. Can be seen as the "first wave" of underground hiphop, as the genres fragmented into the other genres referenced here after this "Golden Age" had passed.
    A subgenre of rap where the lyrics tell tales straight out of schlocky horror movies. The tracks are often composed in minor keys, and the beats are straight-ahead bass in the style of West Coast hiphop. The artists who make this kind of music are often showmen, dressing in outrageous costumes. They borrow much of their imagery from rock bands like Black Sabbath or Slayer.
    Laid back rap style, often pilfering samples from 1950's-60's jazz and soul records. More cerebral rhymes mark this genre. The artists often have live bands accompanying their shows.
    This genre is focused on the DJ and their instruments: the turntables. It's all about innovation in scratching and beat juggling. DJs are also praised for their choices of source materials-- the records they play-- and need to balance playing obscure records and popular ones.



Bravo, Vee and Tarik Gause.  “South American Hip-Hop.” 2 March 2000.  Stress

Wiretap (6 Feb 2002).

Cross, Brian (1993). It's not about a salary... rap, race + resistance in Los Angeles. London: Verso.

D, Chuck, and Jah, Yusuf. Fight the power: rap, race, and identity. Delacorte Press: New York, 1997.

Dawn Raid Entertainment.  2002.  9 April 2002.

Dimitriadis, Greg (2001). Performing identity/performing culture: hiphop as text, pedagogy, and lived practice. New York: P.Lang.

Flores, Juan. From Bomba to Hip-Hop: Puerto Rican Culture and Latino Identity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.

Jenkins, Mao, Rollins Alvarez, and Wilson, eds. Ego Trip's Book of Rap Lists. St. Martin's Press, New York, 1999.

Kitwana, Bakari (1994). The rap on gangsta rap. Chicago:Third World Press.

Mitchell, Tony, ed. Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside  the USA. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.

Nelson, Havelock (1991). Bring the noise:a guide to rap music and hip-hop culture. New York: Harmony Books.

Paligaru, Clement.  “King Kapisi & the Rise of Samoan Hip-Hop.”  The Space: ABC

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Perkins, William Eric. Droppin' Science: Critical Essays on Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.

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Toop, David (2000). Rap attack #3. London: Serpent's Tail.

Online - History of British Hiphop - Japanese hiphop site - Another take on the history of hip hop. Again some interesting information on how the form of music evolved. - a site all about underground hip-hop. kinda like what out plan is, but without history or interactivity or explanations of different genres. lots and lots of reviews. - Japanese hiphop site - Good list of world hiphop links - Hip hop sample database... Pretty comprehensive way to track down that elusive sample that your favorite dj uses all the time. - Brit-ish is dedicated to the incredibly vibrant UK hip-hop scene. It showcases regular news updates, record reviews, a few feature articles. Like the Native American site, this one doesn't provide a history or overview, so it appears to be more useful to those who already prior knowledge of hip-hop in Britain. - A directory of hip hop related sources. Most of the links of which are history oriented. - A site about the history of hip hop though the eyes of Kurtis Blow. Kurtis was one of the originals who was there when hip hop originated. A good source of history facts. - Has a few decent links that may be useful. - The site is big, but it has a lot of dead links/missing information. Good source for artist photos and graf info. - A site that contains a pretty good record of the history of hip hop. Visually the site is quite boring which contains mostly text. Not much to do here but read. - This site contains good information about Turntablism and is the home to the premiere DJ battle in the world. - site all about downtempo (a possible subgenre for our project?). a bit of info about trip-hop (which we may want to investigate, but we can talk about it). - commercial site with info on some artists and mp3s. good for fidning soundclips from scenes we're not near physically (ie, boston, LA). - This site contains the history of hip hop and dub music. The history aspect of hip hop is broken down into Old School, New School, East Coast West Coast, Gangsta and some other genres. - This page has a lot of good interviews with rappers, and some decent info. on the 4 elements of hiphop. It's by some guy named rokbottom, apparently... - This site seems to have some good info and interactivity, but some of it is in German and I can't read it. I think Andre said he spoke German. He can check this one out. - This site seems to have a nice database filled with many of the popular songs and labels associated with Ghettotech music. - This site has an extensive archieve of performances from people from all musical genres in Real Video format. Although browsing their archieve of videos is difficult its best to have some idea of what you want to find. One of my favorite videos to watch is DJ Godfather at DEMF 2000. In order to search the archieves click the Broadcasts button and then click the link for archieves. - This site was established by what appears to be an activist group with a hip-hop orientation and its extensive collection of articles moves beyond hip-hop to almost any subject under the sun. Though the music itself can get lost in the smorgasbord of essays on anarchism, literature, world travel, and religion, still provides a good number of artist interviews and contributes to the ongoing discussion of issues relevant to hip-hop. - Hiphop Congress - this directory has categorized links for almost everything hip-hop related online. A lot of links are out of date, warned. - You can listen to lots of different radio stations that broadcast underground hiphop - A truly unique site that serves as a forum for the virtually unheard-of Native American hip-hop scene. The debates are lively and the directory of Native-American MC's, DJ's, and record labels is especially useful. However, newcomers may feel lost and a brief history of the scene would greatly enhance the site. One of the more interesting links takes you to a site about Native American gangs. - Nubian Underground-- African hiphop online - Site on African hiphop. Some artist profiles and interviews. - A comprehensive site that provides lyrics to hip-hop songs. All the mainstream acts are covered, as are many underground artists. The only problem is that it's a public domain site and the lyrics are based on what people submit. There will be ocassions when you will encounter mistakes or uncertainties in the lyrics, especially for more unintelligible songs. - This site is pretty interesting...although the layout and design aren't great they have a nice dictionary of popular hip-hop phrases and many interesting reviews of the latest albums. - This is the site for an underground record label Soleside Records. This site contains new and artist information about some of the worlds most talented turntablist and lyrists...Lyrics Born, DJ Shadow, Lateef and Blackalicious. - They have some sweet live broadcast. You should listen to this. Maybe you'll hear an artist you never knew existed. - online hiphop vinyl retailer, but so much more... This site has artist interviews, excellent reviews (and real audio) for almost everything they sell, and it is really funny. - is an essenial site for the die-hard beat junkie as well as the casual listener. The site features a ginormous library of songs in RealAudio for your listening pleasure as well as (especially in our case) research needs. Most of the biggest names in underground hip-hop are covered and there are even old school and instrumental sections. The collection is constantly being updated and the site has a weekly top 40 list. - This looks like a promissing site that has some nice local reviews of artists the magazine hightlights michigan rappers. Maybe they are other regional magazines that we can find? - African Hiphop online - record label for the roots, dilated peoples, talib kweli & hi-tek, and common, among others. Possible resource for "the Philly scene."

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