Resource List

We have attempted to make this list as comprehensive as possible; please contact us if you can identify gaps and assist us in filling them with quality educational materials. Although many of these resources are available through standard library sources, some must be ordered directly from publishers, organizations, or government agencies, whose addresses are included wherever possible. An asterisk (*) indicates case studies; information on obtaining them is supplied at the end of this list.










Introductory Readings and Books

Azzone, G., and U. Bertele. "Exploiting Green Strategies for Competitive Advantage." Long Range Planning 27 no. 6 (December 1994): 69-81.

Brown, Malcolm "Greening the Bottom Line." Management Today (July 1995): 72-78.

Buchholz, R. A. Principles of Environmental Management: The Greening of Business. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Buchholz, R. A., et al. "General Electric: Environmental Forecasting." In Management Response to Public Issues: Concepts and Cases in Strategy Formulation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1985.

Cairncross, F. Costing the Earth: The Challenge for Governments, The Opportunities for Business. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1992.

Carson, P., and J. Moulden. Green is Gold: Business Talking to Business About the Environmental Revolution. Toronto: HarperCollins, 1991.

Conference Board. Business: Championing the Global Environment, Report No. 995, ed. J. Alster and T. Brothers. New York: Conference Board, 1992.

Corcoran, E. "Thinking Green: Can Environmentalism be a Strategic Advantage?" Scientific American 267 (December 1992): 34-45.

David, R. A., ed. The Greening of Business. Brookfield, VT: Gower, 1991.

Denton, D. K. Enviro-Management: How Smart Companies Turn Environmental Costs Into Profits. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1994.

Kleiner, A. "What Does It Mean to Be Green?" Harvard Business Review 69 (July/August 1991): 38-47.

Kolluru, R. V., ed. Environmental Strategies Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill (1993).

Polonsky, M. J. "An Introduction to Green Marketing." Electronic Green Journal 1, no. 2 (November 1994). [Available only on the Worldwide Web: click here.]

Polonsky, M. J., and A. T. Mintu-Wimsatt, eds. Environmental Marketing: Strategies, Practice, Theory and Research. New York: Haworth Press, 1995.

Porter, M., and C. van der Linde. "Green and Competitive---Ending the Stalemate." Harvard Business Review 73, no. 3-4 (September-October 1995): 120-134.

Saunders, T. The Bottom Line of Green Is Black: Strategies for Creating Profitable and Environmentally Sound Businesses. San Francisco: Harper, 1993.

Shrivastava, P. Greening Business: Profiting the Corporation and the Environment. Cincinnati: Thomson Executive Press, 1996.

Sullivan, T. F. P., ed. The Greening of American Business: Making Bottom-Line Sense of Environmental Responsibility. Rockville, MD: Government Institutes, Inc., 1992.

Vandermerwe, Sandra, and Michael D. Oliff. "Customers Drive Corporations Green." Long Range Planning 23, no. 6 (November-December 1990): 10-16.

Walley, N., and B. Whitehead. "It's Not Easy Being Green." Harvard Business Review 72, no. 11-12 (May-June 1994): 46-52.

Product Manufacturing and Packaging

Design and Manufacturing

Allenby, Braden R., and Deanna J. Richards, eds. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington: National Academy Press, 1994.

Alting, L. L. "Designing for a Lifetime." Manufacturing Breakthrough 2, no. 3 (May/June 1993): 29-33.

Andrews, J. "Fridge Makers Design for the Future." Custom Builder 7, no. 11-12 (November/December, 1992): 98-100.

Ashley, S. "Designing for the Environment." Mechanical Engineering 115, no. 3 (March 1993): 52-55.

Beaumont, J. R. "Commentary: The Greening of the Car Industry." Environment and Planning 25 (1993): 909-922.

Bergstrom, R. P. "Making Durable Goods." Production 45, no. 104 (October 1991).

Berry, B. "Automakers Want to Recycle All of the Car." Iron Age 8, no. 2 (February 1992): 28-29.

Bhat, V. N. "A Blueprint for Green Product Development." IM 35, no. 2 (March/April 1993): 4-7.

Bylinsky, G. "Manufacturing for Reuse." Fortune 131, no. 2 (February 6, 1991): 102-112.

Considine, G. "Design Rescues Products From the Scrap Heap." Design News 50, no. 9 (May 8, 1995): 25-26.

Design Management Institute. Braun: The KF40 Line of Automatic Coffee Makers: Executive Summary Case Study. 1992. Harvard Business School Case 9-996-023.

*Harvard Business School. Xerox: Design for the Environment. 1994. Case 9-794-022, Teaching Note 5-795-084.

*Management Institute for Environment and Business. Procter & Gamble Company: Life Cycle Analysis and Disposable and Reusable Diapers, 1994.

Sarkis, J., and A. Rasheed. "Greening the Manufacturing Function." Business Horizons 38, no. 5 (September-October 1995): 17-27.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Green Products by Design: Choices for a Cleaner Environment. GPO# 052-003-01303-7. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992. To order, call 202/512-1800 with a credit card or send a check for $8 to: Superintendent of Documents, Box 371954, Pittsburgh PA 15250-7954 .

Wilder, R. "Designing for Disassembly: Durable-Goods Makers Build In Recyclability." Modern Plastics 67, no. 12 (November 1990): 16-17.

Packaging Issues

"Going Beyond Green." Modern Materials Handling 50, no. 10 (September 1995): 12-13.

*International Institute for Management Development. Consumer Packaged Goods in Europe, 1993: Insights Into the Industry.

Stilwell, E. J., R. C. Canty, et al. Packaging for the Environment: A Partnership for Progress. New York: American Management Association, 1991.

Attitudes, Perception, Willingness-to-Pay, and the Green Consumers

Balderjahn, Ingo. "Personality Variables and Environmental Attitudes as Predictors of Ecologically Responsible Consumption Patterns." Journal of Business Research 17, no. 1 (August 1988): 51-56.

Berger, I. E., and V. Kanetkar. "Increasing Environmental Sensitivity Via Workplace Experiences." Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 14, no. 2 (Fall 1995): 205.

Bohlen, Greg, Bodo B. Schlegelmilch, and Adamantios Diamantopoulos. "Measuring Ecological Concern: A Multi-Construct Perspective." Journal of Marketing Mgmt. 9, no. 3 (March 1993): 415-430.

Cornwell, T. Bettina, and Charles H. Schwepker, Jr. "Ecologically Concerned Consumers and Their Product Purchases." In Environmental Marketing: Strategies, Practice, Theory and Research, ed. M. Polonsky and A. Mintu-Wimsatt, 119-153. New York: Haworth Press, 1995.

Davis, J. J. "Consumer Responses to Corporate Environmental Advertising." Journal of Consumer Marketing 11, no. 2 (July 1994): 25-37.

Drumwright, Minette. "Socially Responsible Organizational Buying: Environmental Concern as a Noneconomic Buying Criterion." Journal of Marketing 58 (July 1994): 1-19.

Elkington, J., J. Hailes, et al. The Green Consumer. New York: Penguin Books, 1990.

*Harvard Business School. Chevron Corporation: Corporate Image Advertising. 1991. Case 9-591-005.

Johnson, Scott D., and Denise M. Johnson. "Eco-Attitudes and Eco-Behaviors in the New German States: A 1992 Perspective." In Environmental Marketing: Strategies, Practice, Theory and Research, ed. M. Polonsky and A. Mintu-Wimsatt, 101-117. New York: Haworth Press, 1995.

Kassarjian, Harold H. "Incorporating Ecology Into Marketing Strategy: The Case of Air Pollution." Journal of Marketing 35 (July 1971): 61-65.

Leigh, J. H., P. E. Murphy, and B. M. Enis. "Perceived Societal Benefit of Selected Product Classes: A Test of a Product Differentiation Framework." Journal of Macromarketing 9, no. 2 (Fall 1989): 44-54.

Martin, B., and A. Simintiras. "The Impact of Green Product Lines on the Environment." Marketing Intelligence & Planning 13, no. 4 (1995): 16-23.

Obermiller, C. "The Baby is Sick/The Baby is Well: A Test of Environmental Communication Appeals." Journal of Advertising 24, no. 2 (summer 1995): 55-70.

OÖlander, Folke, and John Togersen. "Understanding of Consumer Behavior as a Prerequisite for Environmental Protection." Journal of Consumer Policy 18, no. 4 (December 1995): 345-385.

Pickett, Gregory, Norman Kangun, and Steve Grove. “An Examination of the Conserving Consumer: Implications for Public Policy Formation in Promoting Conservation Behavior.” In Environmental Marketing: Strategies, Practice, Theory and Research, ed. M. Polonsky and A. Mintu-Wimsatt, 77–99. New York: Haworth Press, 1995.

Roper Organization. “Environmental Behavior, North America: Canada, Mexico, United States,” July 1992; and “The Environment: Public Attitudes and Individual Behavior,” July 1990. [For availability, contact Cynthia Georgeson, S. C. Johnson Inc., 414/631-4728. Both reports are also summarized in Litvan (1995) and Chap. 2 of Ottman (1993).]

Schuhwerk, M. E., and R. Lefkoff-Hagius. “Green or Non-Green? Does Type of Appeal Matter When Advertising a Green Product?” Journal of Advertising 24, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 45–54.

Schwepker, C. H., and T. B. Cornwell. “An Examination of Ecologically Concerned Consumers and Their Intention to Purchase Ecologically Packaged Products.” Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 10, no. 2 (1991): 77–101.

Shrum, L. J., J. A. McCarty, et al. “Buyer Characteristics of the Green Consumer and Their Implications for Advertising Strategy.” Journal of Advertising 24, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 71–82.

Stone, G., J. H. Barnes, and C. Montgomery. “Eco-Scale: A Scale for the Measurement of Environmentally Responsible Consumers.” Psychology and Marketing 12, no. 7 (October 1995): 595–612.

Walley, W. “Pricing Is Key To Products’ Success.” Advertising Age 62, no. 6 (February 4, 1991): 12.

Zimmer, Mary R., Thomas F. Stafford, and Marla Royne Stafford. “Green Issues: Dimensions of Environmental Concern.” Journal of Business Research 30, no. 1 (May1994): 63–74.

Zinkhan, G. M., and L. Carlson. “Green Advertising and the Reluctant Consumer.” Journal of Advertising 24, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 1–6.

Advertising / Green Marketing Trends

“Special Issue on Green Advertising.” Journal of Advertising 24, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 1–82.

Banerjee, S., C. S. Gulas, et al. “Shades of Green: A Multidimensional Analysis of Environmental Advertising.” Journal of Advertising 24, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 21–32.

Chase, D. “P&G Gets Top Marks in AA Survey.” Advertising Age 62, no. 5 (January 29, 1991): 8–10.

Coleman, L. J. “Marketing in Shades of Green or Color the Trend in Marketing Green.” Health Marketing Quarterly 11, no. 3–4 (Summer 1994): 55–60.

De Carvalho, F. A., L. M. Guedes, et al. “Marketing Aspects of Environmental Practices of Multinational Enterprises in Host Countries: A Brazilian Case Study.” International Executive 37 (September/October 1995): 499–512.

Kilbourne, W. E. “Green Advertising: Salvation or Oxymoron?” Journal of Advertising 24, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 7–20.

Levin, G. “Green Marketing Gets Cautious.” Advertising Age 64, no. 28 (July 5, 1993): 4.

Ottman, J. “Ignore Environmental Issues at Your Own Marketing Peril.” Brandweek 35, no. 19 (May 9, 1994): 17.

Shannon, J. “Why Forecasts Were So Green.” Marketing Week 18, no. 20 (July 28, 1995)

*Western Ontario Business School. Procter and Gamble, Inc.: Downy Enviro- Pak. 1990. Case 990A006; Teaching Note 890A06.

*———. Sunlight Laundry Detergent. 1991. Case 991A018; Teaching Note 891A18.

Strategic Management and How to Market Green Products

Benedetto, C. Anthony, and Rajan Chandran. “Behaviors of Environmentally Concerned Firms: An Agenda for Effective Strategic Development.” In Environmental Marketing: Strategies, Practice, Theory and Research, ed. M. Polonsky and A. Mintu-Wimsatt, 269–291. New York: Haworth Press, 1995.

Coddington, W. Environmental Marketing: Positive Strategies for Reaching the Green Consumer. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

*Corporate Environmental Management Program, University of Michigan. Deja Shoe (A and B). 1996. Published by the Management Institute for Environment and Business.

Dyllick, Thomas. “Ecological Marketing Strategy of Toni Yogurts in Switzerland.” Journal of Business Ethics 8 (August 1989): 657–662.

*European Case Clearinghouse. The Clean Green Shirt Company. 1994. Case 194-027-1.

Frankel, C. “Blueprint for Green Marketing.” American Demographics 14, no. 4 (April 1992): 34–38.

Frause, B., and J. Colehour. The Environmental Marketing Imperative: Strategies for Transforming Environmental Commitment Into a Competitive Advantage. Chicago: Probus, 1994.

Harrison, E. B. Going Green: How to Communicate Your Company’s Environmental Commitment. Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1993.

*Harvard Business School. Advertising Council Earth Share Campaign: Strategy, Execution, and Final Campaign. 1993. Case 9-593-062; Video 9-593-516.

*———. Green Marketing at Rank Xerox. 1996. Case 9-594-047; Teaching Note 5-595-091.

*———. President’s Choice G.R.E.E.N.: Something Can Be Done. 1990. Case 9-590-051.

Litvan, L. M. “Going ‘Green’ in the ’90s.” Nation’s Business 83, no. 2 (February 1995): 30–32.

*Management Institute for Environment and Business. Coocafe, R.L. 1995.

*———. Esprit. 1995.

McDaniel, S. W., and D. H. Rylander. “Strategic Green Marketing.” Journal of Consumer Marketing 10, no. 3 (1993): 4–10.

Menon, Anil, and Ajay Menon. "Enviropreneurial Marketing Strategy: The Emergence of Corporate Environmentalism as a Marketing Strategy." Journal of Marketing 61 (January 1997): 51-67.

Ottman, J. Environmental Consumerism: What Every Marketer Needs to Know. Long Island, NY: Alert Publishing, 1991.

———. Green Marketing: Challenges and Opportunities for the New Marketing Age. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books, 1993.

Sadgrove, K. “Marketing.” Chap. 10 in The Green Manager’s Handbook. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing Company, 1992.

Samli, A. C. Social Responsibility in Marketing: A Proactive and Profitable Marketing Management Strategy. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1992.

Saunders, Tedd. The Bottom Line of Green Is Black: Strategies for Creating Profitable and Environmentally Sound Businesses. San Francisco: Harper, 1993.

Scerbinski, Jacqueline. “Consumers and the Environment: A Focus on Five Products.” Journal of Business Strategy 12, no. 5 (September–October 1991): 44–47.

Wasik, J. F. Green Marketing and Management: A Good Perspective. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.

Environmental Marketing Claims

Consumer Perception

Carlson, Les, Stephen J. Grove, and Norman Kangun. "A Content Analysis of Environmental Advertising Claims: A Matrix Method Approach." Journal of Advertising 22, no. 3 (September 1993): 28–39.

Cude, B. J. “Consumer Perceptions of Environmental Marketing Claims: An Exploratory Study.” Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics 17, no. 3 (September 1993): 207–225. [Published by Blackwell Scientific, U.K. For more information, call 44 (0)1865 206126, send e-mail to, or see Blackwell's web page ]

Davis, J. J. “Strategies for Environmental Advertising.” Journal of Consumer Marketing 10, no. 2 (Summer 1993): 19–36.

Kangun, Norman, Les Carlson, and Stephen Grove. “Environmental Advertising Claims: A Preliminary Investigation.” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 10, no. 2 (Fall 1991): 47–58.

Government Regulation

“FTC Revisits Labeling Guides.” Environment Today 6 (October 1995): 3+.

Church, John M. “A Market Solution to Green Marketing: Some Lessons from the Economics of Information.” Minnesota Law Review 79, no.2 (December 1994): 245–324.

Colford, S. W. “Fade-Out For Green?” Advertising Age 65, no. 51 (December 5, 1994): 1.

Cronin, Michael P. “Green Marketing Heats Up.” Inc. 15, no. 1 (January 1993): 27.

Davis, Joel J. “Federal and State Regulation of Environmental Marketing: A Manager’s Guide.” Advanced Management Journal 59 (Summer 1994): 36–44.

*Harvard Business School. Catalan Leather Industry. 1996. Case No. 9-795-105.

Hoch, David, and Robert Franz. “Eco-Porn Versus the Constitution: Commercial Speech and the Regulation of Environmental Advertising.” Albany Law Review 58, no. 3 (Summer 1994): 441–466.

Howett, Ciannat. “The ‘Green Labeling’ Phenomenon: Problems and Trends in the Regulation of Environmental Product Claims.” Virginia Environmental Law Journal 11, no. 3 (Spring 1992): 401–461.

Israel, G. “Taming the Green Marketing Monster: National Standards for Environmental Marketing Claims.” Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 20, no. 2 (Winter 1993): 303–333.

Kangun, N., and M. J. Polonsky. “Regulation of Environmental Marketing Claims: A Comparative Perspective.” International Journal of Advertising 14 (1995): 1–24.

Lawrence, J. “FTC To Hear Industry Group’s Green Guidelines.” Advertising Age 62, no. 6 (Feb. 4, 1991).

*Management Institute for Environment and Business. Mobil Chemical Corporation, 1992.

McClure, K. Alexandra. “Environmental Marketing: A Call for Legislative Action.” Santa Clara Law Review 35 (1995): 1,351–1,378.

O’Brien, K. A. “Green Marketing: Can It Be Harmful to Your Health?” Industry Week 241, no. 8 (April 20, 1992): 56–60.

Ortego, J. J. “‘Green Marketing’ and the First Amendment.” Marketing Management 4 (Autumn 1995): 62–64.

Scammon, D. L., and R. N. Mayer. “Agency Review of Environmental Marketing Claims: Case-by-Case Decomposition of the Issues.” Journal of Advertising 24, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 33–44.

Shi, J. S., and J. M. Cane. “Growing a Green Marketing Strategy.” Business & Society Review, no. 93 (Spring 1995): 61–63.

Tarsney, Peter J. “Regulation of Environmental Marketing: Reassessing the Supreme Court’s Protection of Commercial Speech.” Notre Dame Law Review 69, no. 3 (Summer 1994): 533–574.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Evaluation of Environmental Marketing Terms in the United States (EPA/741/R-92/003). Washington: U.S. EPA, February 1993. [Available free from the Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse: call 202/260-1023, fax 202/260-4659, send e-mail to, or use the online order form ]

Welsh, David. “Environmental Marketing and Federal Preemption of State Law: Eliminating the ‘Gray’ Behind the ‘Green.’” California Law Review 81, no. 4 (July 1993): 991–1,027.

Voluntary Industry Initiation & Certification Programs

Cascio, J. The ISO 14000 Handbook. Milwaukee: ASQC Quality Press, 1996.

Grodsky, Jamie A. “Certified Green: The Law and Future of Environmental Labeling.” Yale Journal on Regulation 10, no. 1 (Winter 1993): 147–227.

*Harvard Business School. Duales System Deutschland. 1996. Case 9-795-074.

Holloway, M., and P. Wallich. “How Green Is My Label?” Scientific American 270, no. 5 (May 1994): 115.

Kirchenstein, J. J., and R. A. Jump. “The European EcoLabels and Audits Scheme: New Environmental Standards for Competing Abroad.” Total Quality Environmental Management 3, no. 1 (Autumn 1993): 53–62.

Levinson, M. “Seeing Red Over Green: Why Big Business Hates Eco-labels.” Newsweek 127 (June 17, 1996): 55

*Management Institute for Environment and Business. Plantanera Rio Sixaola, S.A. 1994.

*———. Portico, S.A. 1994.

Marsh, A. “Czechs Tout Green Products With New Seal.” Advertising Age 65, no. 39 (September 19, 1994): 18.

Mattoo, A., and H. V. Singh. “Eco-Labelling: Policy Considerations.” Kyklos 47, no. 1 (April 1994): 53–65.

Nash, J., and J. Ehrenfeld. “Code Green: Business Adopts Voluntary Environmental Standards.” Environment 38, no. 1 (January 1996): 16.

Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. Environmental Labelling in OECD Countries. Paris: OECD, 1991. [Available from OECD Publications, 2001 L Street, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20036; phone 202/785-6323.]

O’Reilly, James T. “Environmental Product Certification: The Legal Implications of Green Endorsements.” Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation 8 (July–December 1993): 199–220.

Rosen, B. N., and G. B. Sloane. “Environmental Product Standards, Trade and European Consumer Goods Marketing: Processes, Threats and Opportunities.” Columbia Journal of World Business 30 (Spring 1995): 74–86.

Tietje, C. “Voluntary Eco-Labelling Programmes and Questions of State Responsibility in the WTO/GATT Legal System.” Journal of World Trade 29, no. 5 (October 1995): 123–158.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Status Report on the Use of Environmental Labels Worldwide (EPA/742/R-93/001). Washington: U.S. EPA, 1993. [Available free from Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse: call 202/260-1023, fax 202/260-4659, e-mail, or use the online order form ]

Webb, L. “Eco-labels Stuck on Search for Common Standards.” Pulp & Paper International 36, no. 11 (November 1994): 39–43.

West, Karen. “Ecolabels: The Industrialization of Environmental Standards.” The Ecologist 25, no. 1 (January/February 1995): 16–20.

Public Relations

Corporate Communications and the Value of a Good Corporate Image

Buchholz, R. A., W. D. Evans, et al. Chap. 6 in Management Response to Public Issues: Concepts and Cases in Strategy Formulation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall (1985)

Conway, Stephen J. “The Corporation’s Role in Educating the Consumer.” In Business: Championing the Global Environment, Report 995, ed. J. Alster and T. Brothers, 31–33. New York: Conference Board, 1992.

Daigre, Gerard. “Involving the Community.” In Business: Championing the Global Environment, Report 995, ed. J. Alster and T. Brothers, 27–28. New York: Conference Board, 1992.

*Darden Graduate School of Business. Quick-Cook Ovens: A Public Relations Perspective. 1985. Case E-0048, Teaching Note E-0048TN.

Fatkin, Harry. “Communicating Environmental Performance to Stakeholders.” In Business: Championing the Global Environment, Report 995, ed. J. Alster and T. Brothers, 29–30. New York: Conference Board, 1992.

Harrison, E. B. Going Green: How to Communicate Your Company’s Environmental Commitment. Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1993.

*Harvard Business School. Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries, Inc. 1994. Case 9-794-099, Teaching Note 5-795-067.

*———. Ashland Oil, Inc.: Fire Aboard the M/V Jupiter. 1993. Case 9-393-004.

*———. Beresford Packaging, Inc. 1991. Case 9-591-105.

Kennedy, Robert. “The Commitment to Corporate Environmental Excellence.” In Business: Championing the Global Environment, Report 995, ed. J. Alster and T. Brothers, 9–11. New York: Conference Board, 1992.

Lober, Douglas J., David Bynum, Elizabeth Campbell, and Mary Jacques. “The 100+ Corporate Environmental Report Study: A Survey of an Evolving Environmental Management Tool.” Business Strategy and the Environment 6, no. 2 (1997): 57–73.

Ludford, L. F. “3P Program Pays Off in Cost Savings of $500 Million for 3M.” Public Relations Journal 47, no. 4 (April 1991): 20–21.

Mulligan, William. “Corporate Environmentalism.” In Business: Championing the Global Environment, Report 995, ed. J. Alster and T. Brothers, 24–26. New York: Conference Board, 1992.

Price-Thurman, Barbara. “People on the Front Line of Environmental Crisis.” In Business: Championing the Global Environment, Report 995, ed. J. Alster and T. Brothers, 33–34. New York: Conference Board, 1992.

Sawhill, J. C. “It’s Not Always Easy Being Green—But It Pays.” CHEMTECH 22, no. 11 (November 1992): 655–657.

Schrum, Roger. “Environmental Crisis Management.” In Business: Championing the Global Environment, Report 995, ed. J. Alster and T. Brothers, 31–32. New York: Conference Board, 1992.

*Western Ontario University, Ivey School of Business. Consumers Gas: The LNG Plant (A). 1989. Case 989L002; Teaching Note 889l002.

*———. Noranda Environmental Communication (A and B). 1991. Cases 991L007 and 991L008; Teaching Notes 891L007 and 891L008.

Partnerships with Environmental Organizations

Caudron, S. “The Green Handshake.” Industry Week 244, no. 7 (April 3, 1995): 33–35.

Long, Frederick J., and Matthew B. Arnold. The Power of Environmental Partnerships. Fort Worth, TX: The Dryden Press, 1995.

Mendleson, N., and M. J. Polonsky. “Using Strategic Alliances to Develop Credible Green Marketing.” Journal of Consumer Marketing 12, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 4–18.

*National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education. Case Studies: (A) McDonald’s Environmental Strategy, (B1) The Clamshell Controversy, (B2) McDonald’s Decision, and (C) Sustaining McDonald’s Success; Teaching Notes. March 1995.

Westley, F., and H. Vredenburg. “Strategic Bridging: The Collaboration Between Environmentalists and Business in the Marketing of Green Products.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences 27, no. 1 (March 1991): 65–90.

Stakeholder Negotiations

Beckenstein, A. R., F. J. Long, M. B. Arnold, and T. N. Gladwin; New York University Stern Business School. Stakeholder Negotiations: Exercises in Sustainable Development. New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1995. (ISBN 0-256-18806-8)

*Management Institute for Environment and Business. Simulation: Rainforest Negotiation Exercise. 1994. [This case is also contained in Beckenstein et al.]

Case Studies in Green Marketing

Ecotourism & Green Hotels

“Survey Shows Travelers Will Spend More on ‘Green’ Services.” Hotel & Motel Management 210, no. 8 (May 8, 1995): 33.

Arlen, C. “Ecotour, Hold the Eco.” US News & World Report 119, no. 21 (May 29, 1995): 61–63.

Barden, C. I. “The Hotel of the Future?” Conde Nast Traveler 29, no. 5 (May 1994): 158–161.

Boo, E. Ecotourism: The Potentials and Pitfalls. Washington: World Wildlife Fund, 1990.

Cater, E., and G. Lowman, eds. Ecotourism: A Sustainable Option? New York: Wiley, 1994.

Freedman, A. J. “EcoTopia.” National Review 47, no. 23 (December 11, 1995): 38.

Frommer, A. “Writing Reasonable Rules for Real Ecotourism.” Travel-Holiday 177, no. 1 (February 1994): 25.

Jaquette, L. “Hoteliers Are Seeing Green With Ecology Efforts.” Hotel & Motel Management. 207, no. 13 (July 27, 1992): 19–20.

Riggle, D. “Hotels Join the Parade.” BioCycle 33, no. 10 (October 1992): 37–39.

Sinclair, L. “Environmental Hotels Appeal to Eco-travelers.” Safety & Health 150, no. 5 (November 1994): 93–94.

Troumbis, A. Y. “Environmental Labelling on Services: The Case of Tourism.” Ekistics: The Problems & Science of Human Settlements 58, no. 348–349 (Summer 1991): 167–173.

Watkins, E. “Do Guests Want Green Hotels?” Lodging Hospitality 50 (April 1994): 70–72.

Whelan, T., ed. Nature Tourism: Managing for the Environment. Washington: Island Press, 1991.

Automobile Industry

Beaumont, J. R. “Commentary: The Greening of the Car Industry.” Environment and Planning 25, no. 7 (July 1993): 909–922.

Berry, B. “Automakers Want to Recycle All of the Car.” Iron Age (February 1992): 28–29.

Prothero, Andrea. “Green Marketing in the Car Industry.” Chap. 11 in Motor Vehicles in the Environment, ed. P. Nieuwenhuis and P. Wells, 174–189. Chichester, England: Wiley, 1994.

Cosmetics and Toiletries

Davis, D. A. “Green for Cosmetics.” Drug & Cosmetic Industry 156, no. 2 (February 1995): 22–34.

Lawrence, J., and P. Sloan. “Toiletries to Strip Excess Packaging.” Advertising Age 62, no. 20 (May 13, 1991): 3.

Textiles and Clothing

*European Case Clearinghouse. The Clean Green Shirt Company. 1994. Case 194-027-1.

Ortega, B. “Organic Cotton May Feel Soft to Touch, But It’s Hard to Sell.” Wall Street Journal Eastern Edition (Tuesday, Nov. 8, 1994): B1–B2.

Underwood, E. “New Products: Green Jeans and Pop Bottles.” Brandweek 35 (October 10, 1994): 8.

Wood Products

Irland, L. C. “Wood Producers Face Green Marketing Era.” Wood Technology 120, no. 2 (March 1993): 34–36.

Malin, N. “Is Wood or Metal Greener?” Architectural Record 183, no. 9 (September 1991): 39–41.

Pease, D. A. “Proving Wood’s Green Credentials.” Wood Technology 120, no. 2 (March 1993): 5.

The Body Shop and Ben & Jerry’s: Environmentally Consious?

Entine, J. “Shattered Image.” Business Ethics 8, no. 5 (September/October 1994): 23–28.

———. “Let Them Eat Brazil Nuts.” Dollars and Sense 216, no. 3 (March/April 1996): 30–35.

Rosin, H. “The Evil Empire: The Scoop on Ben & Jerry’s Crunchy Capitalism.” The New Republic 213, no. 4 (September 11, 1995): 22–25.

Other Consumer Products

Dowling, Melissa. “Does It Pay to be Green?” Catalog Age (October 1994): 107–110.

Fuller, G. W. “Ingredients and ‘Green’ Labels.” Food Technology 47, no. 8 (August 1993): 68–71.

Stanley, T. L. “Eco-Minded Ortho Trims Product Lines, Trowels New Packaging to Nurture Growth.” Brandweek 36, no. 1 (January 2, 1995): 9.

Wilson, M. “Wal-Mart Makes a Green Statement.” Chain Store Age Executive 69, no. 7 (July 1993): 23–26.

World Wide Web Sites

The Internet is changing so rapidly that no written compendium can hope to be current. The listing below has been updated as of December 1997; we recommend that you verify each site’s existence and content before using it in a classroom setting.

Environmental Marketing

EcoMall covers a wide variety of environmental issues, including eco-investment, renewable energy, eco-news, eco-links, and environmentally conscious companies and products.

Eco Expo features a searchable index for environmentally conscious products and services.

Pollution Prevention

Enviro$en$e, which is funded by the U.S. EPA, is intended to help people implement pollution prevention programs.

US AID's P2/ECDM Magazines on the Internet is a listing of periodicals and magazines about pollution prevention, Total Quality Environmental Management, corporate environmental strategy, environmentally conscious design and manufacturing, recycling, and a variety of related topics.


Green Arrow Guide to Central American Ecotourism contains valuable information on touring the rainforests and conservation efforts to save them.


Green Market’s mission is to promote consumer responsibility and green products. The site includes links to a Green Market Company Index, news updates, products standards and certification programs, and a discussion forum on environmental issues.

Green Money includes guides to socially responsible business and investments.

Gil Friend's "New Bottom Line: Business and Environment List" is a bi-weekly column on business and the environment. It explores the cutting edge in both business strategy and public policy. To subscribe to The New Bottom Line by e-mail, send a message to containing only the following in the message body: SUBSCRIBE NBL-LIST.

The McDonald’s Protest Page is a useful page to refer students to when discussing public/consumer pressure for environmental change, especially as related to packaging issues.

The Body Shop "Values Report" is an independently verified assessment of the Body Shop’s environmental and social impacts. This study was launched in response to the earlier critiques by Jon Entine et al. For a hard copy, send e-mail to For an updated critique of the “Values Report” and The Body Shop’s response to its critics, contact Entine at

World Resources Institute's online Annotated Guide to environmental management and sustainability teaching resources is especially for business professors. Roughly 200 cases published by WRI, Darden School of Business, Harvard Business School, the NPPC, and more are listed. Case studies are searchable by publisher and by subject; abstracts and ordering information are included.


Mark Cohen
Owen Graduate School of Management
Vanderbilt University
401 21st Ave. South
Nashville TN 37203
615/322- 6814

Betty Diener
College of Management
University of Massachusetts
100 Morrissey Boulevard
Boston MA 02125-3393
617/287- 5000

Donald Fuller
College of Business
University of Central Florida
P.O. Box 161400
Orlandao, FL 32816-1400
407/823- 5577

Gail Kirby
Leavey School of Business
Santa Clara University
Santa Clara, CA 95053

Thomas Klein
College of Business Administration
University of Toledo
3015 Stranahan Hall
Toledo OH 43606

Morgan Miles
Department of Marketing
PO Box 8154
Georgia Southern University
Statesboro, GA 30460

Michael Jay Polonsky
Department of Management
University of Newcastle
Newcastle NSW 2308 Australia
61(49) 215-013 au

To Order Cases:

Darden Graduate School of Business
Educational Materials Services
University of Virginia, Box 6550
Charlottesville, VA 22906
Phone: (804) 924-3009; Fax: (804) 924-4859

Design Management Institute
[See Harvard Business School Publishing,
which now distributes DMI cases.]

European Case Clearing House
ECCH at Babson Ltd./Babson College
Babson Park, MA 02157
Phone: (617) 239-5884; Fax: (617) 239-5885

Harvard Business School Publishing Academic Customer Service Center
60 Harvard Way, Box 230-5A
Boston, MA 02163
Phone: (800)545-7685; Fax: (617)495-6985 24

International Institute for Management Development
Chemin de Bellerive 23
P.O. Box 915CH-1001
Lausanne, Switzerland
Phone: 41 21 618 01 11; Fax: 41 21 26 67 25

Management Institute for Environment and Business
WRI Publications
Box 4852, Hampden Station
Baltimore, MD 21211
Phone: (800) 822-0504; (410) 516-6998
Fax (410) 516-6998

National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education
430 East University Ave.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115
Phone: (734) 764-1412; Fax: (734) 647-5841

University of Western Ontario
Ivey School of Business
[See Harvard Business School Publishing,
which now distributes UWO cases.]

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To add to this List

If you know of any articles, books, people or organizations that should be included in this list please e-mail the complete citation or information to
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This page last revised: January 21, 1999.