This page contains figure files for figures from the book The Science of Music by Mark Newman. You can also download all figures in a single ZIP file here. A few figures are not included because of licensing limitations.

Chapter 1: Sound

PDFPNGAir inside a balloon
PDFPNG1.1Motion of a pressure wave in a tube
PDFPNG1.2Sound production by a vibrating surface
PDFPNG1.3Motion of a sound wave over time
PDFPNG1.4A sound waveform
PDFPNG1.5A sound wave traveling in a tube

Chapter 2: Frequency and pitch

PDFPNG2.1Accelerating series of clicks
PDFPNG2.2Flicker fusion rate
PDFPNG2.3Trumpet waveform
PDFPNG2.4Wavelength of a sound wave
PDFPNG2.5Experiment to measure frequency
PDFPNG2.6A simple one-stringed musical instrument
PDFPNG2.7Frequencies of notes in a major chord
PDFPNG2.8Frequencies of notes in a major scale
PDFPNG2.9One octave of piano keys
PDFPNG2.10The piano keyboard
PDFPNG2.11Names and frequencies of notes on the piano keyboard
PDFPNG2.12Frequencies of all notes on the piano
PDFPNG2.13Pythagorean and equal temperament major scales
JPEG2.14Tuning fork

Chapter 3: Amplitude and loudness

PDFPNG3.2Energy density in a sound wave
PDFPNG3.3Sound wave blocked by a wall
PDFPNG3.4Variation of sound intensity with distance
PDFPNG3.5Curve of constant apparent loudness
PDFPNG3.6Fletcher-Munson diagram
JPEGSound level meter
PDFPNG3.7Frequency response of a type-A filter

Chapter 4: Waveform and timbre

PDFPNG4.1Instrument waveforms
PDFPNG4.2Standard waveforms
PDFPNG4.3Adding waveforms
PDFPNG4.5Sine wave
PDFPNG4.6Making a sawtooth wave
PDFPNGVase illusion
PDFPNG4.7Making a violin waveform
PDFPNGCombination of sine waves (a)
PDFPNGCombination of sine waves (b)
PDFPNGHarmonic series
PDFPNG4.9Harmonics in standard waveforms
PDFPNG4.10Half-wave symmetry
PDFPNG4.11Harmonics in instrument waveforms
PDFPNG4.12Trumpet spectrum
PDFPNG4.13Waveform with no fundamental
PDFPNG4.14Smartphone frequency response
PDFPNG4.15Cymbal waveform and spectrum
PDFPNG4.16Changing phase
PDFPNG4.17Phase cancellation

Chapter 5: Human hearing and the ear

PDFPNG5.1Hearing range
PDFPNG5.2Limit of audibility
PDFPNG5.3The human earJohn Megahan
PDFPNG5.4The middle earJohn Megahan
PDFPNG5.5The cochlea
PDFPNG5.6Response of the basilar membrane
PDFPNG5.8Cochlea measurements
PDFPNG5.9Critical bandwidth
PDFPNGResponse at 20mm
PDFPNG5.10Neural spikesM. Silveira and M. Roberts
PDFPNG5.12Auditory roughness
PDFPNGTransition points
PDFPNGC4/F4 clash
PDFPNG5.15Dissonance experiments
PDFPNGHarmonic series
PDFPNGC4/G4 clash
PDFPNGSonata Pathetique
PDFPNG5.16Larger bandwidth
PDFPNG5.18Time difference between ears

Chapter 6: Room acoustics

PDFPNG6.1Rough surface
PDFPNG6.2Impedance tube
PDFPNG6.3Absorption and frequency
PDFPNG6.4Diffusion of sound
PDFPNG6.5Transmission of sound
PDFPNG6.6Reverb decay
PDFPNG6.7Volume element
JPEGAcoustic ceiling tile
JPEGPlush seating
PDFPNG6.8Ideal reverberation
PDFPNG6.9Reverberation radius
PDFPNG6.10Boston floor plan
PDFPNGDodechedron sound source
PDFPNG6.12Strength factors
PDFPNG6.13Reverb times
PDFPNG6.14Strength factor curves
PDFPNG6.15aSquare hall
PDFPNG6.15bSurround hall
PDFPNG6.15cFan-shaped hall
PDFPNG6.16Impulse response
PDFPNG6.17Ceiling reflection
PDFPNG6.18ITDG with distance
PDFPNG6.19Sound reflector
JPEGSound reflectors on stage

Chapter 7: Recording and reproduction

PDFPNG7.1The recording process
JPEGElectrical plug
PDFPNG7.2Sound waveform as an electrical signal
PDFPNGResistor symbols
PDFPNG7.3A simple circuit
PDFPNG7.4A circuit with two resistors
PDFPNG7.5Volume control
PDFPNG7.6A circuit using a capacitor
PDFPNG7.7The effect of the circuit in Fig. 7.6
PDFPNG7.8A low-pass filter
PDFPNG7.9The effect of the low-pass filter
PDFPNG7.10Frequency response of the low-pass filter
PDFPNG7.11Sound level decrease upon applying the low-pass filter
PDFPNG7.12A 12 dB-per-octave low-pass filter
PDFPNG7.13A high-pass filter
PDFPNG7.14Frequency response of the high-pass filter
PDFPNG7.15A band-pass filter
PDFPNG7.16Frequency response of a band-pass filter
PDFPNG7.17Transistor circuits
PDFPNG7.18A loop of wire
PDFPNG7.19A solenoid
PDFPNG7.20The core of a solenoid
PDFPNG7.21Pressure microphone
PDFPNG7.22Pressure-gradient microphone
PDFPNG7.23Effective sound pressure measured by a cardioid microphone
PDFPNG7.24Bidirectional microphone
PDFPNG7.25Polar plots
PDFPNG7.26Frequency response of a pressure-gradient microphone
PDFPNG7.27Frequency response of a microphone
PDFPNG7.28Directionality of a cardioid microphone
PDFPNG7.29Condenser microphone diagram
PDFPNG7.30aCircuit diagram for a condenser microphone
PDFPNG7.30bCircuit diagram for a condenser microphone
JPEGDynamic microphone photo
PDFPNG7.31Dynamic microphone diagram
PDFPNG7.32Carbon microphone
PDFPNG7.33A tape recorder head
PDFPNG7.34Vinyl LP diagram
PDFPNG7.35Dynamic loudspeaker
PDFPNG7.36Output power of a loudspeaker
PDFPNG7.37Sound leaving a speaker at an angle
PDFPNG7.38Sound projected by a speaker
PDFPNGCircular speaker
PDFPNG7.39Angular output of a circular loudspeaker
PDFPNG7.40Speaker arrangement for surround sound
PDFPNG7.41The groove in a stereo LP

Chapter 8: Digital audio

PDFPNG8.2Sampled sine waves
PDFPNG8.3Anti-aliasing filter
PDFPNG8.4Waveform reconstruction
PNG8.6Digital recording
JPEG8.7Analog-to-digital converter
PDFPNG8.8Dynamic compression
PDFPNG8.10Periodic waveform
PDFPNG8.12Overlapping frames
PDFPNG8.13Representing harmonics

Chapter 9: Acoustic musical instruments

PDFPNGPendulum oscillation
PDFPNG9.1Vibration of a stretched string
PDFPNG9.2Volume of a string
JPEGGuitar truss rod
PDFPNG9.3Sound pressure produced by a moving string
PDFPNG9.4Acoustic guitar
PDFPNG9.5Forces acting on a string

Chapter 10: String instruments

PDFPNG10.1Vibration modes
PDFPNG10.2Second mode
PDFPNG10.3Combinations of modes
PDFPNG10.4Guitar waveforms
PDFPNG10.5String harmonics
PDFPNG10.6Plucked string
JPEG10.7String bending
PDFPNG10.8String bend diagram
JPEG10.9Guitar bridge
PDFPNG10.10Force on bridge
PDFPNGEx. 10.6a
PDFPNGEx. 10.6b
PDFPNG10.13Acoustic guitar response
PDFPNG10.14Guitar sound output
PDFPNG10.15Changing harmonics
PDFPNG10.16Decay envelope
JPEGAlpine zither
PDFPNG10.18Piano action
PDFPNG10.19Piano action
PDFPNG10.20Piano harmonics
PDFPNG10.21Piano hammers
PDFPNG10.22Loud and soft harmonics
JPEG10.23Piano strings
JPEG10.24Piano interior
PDFPNG10.25Railsback curve
PDFPNG10.26Piano diagram
PDFPNG10.27Piano soundboard
PDFPNG10.28Changing harmonics
PDFPNG10.29Non-exponential decay
JPEGPiano strings
JPEG10.30Square piano
JPEG10.31Upright piano
PDFPNG10.32Violin diagram
JPEG10.33Violin bow
PDFPNGHelmholtz motion
PDFPNG10.34Helmholtz motion
PDFPNGShape of string
PDFPNG10.36Force at bridge
PDFPNG10.37Violin interior
PDFPNG10.39Violin admittance
PDFPNG10.40Double bass
PDFPNG10.41Primary resonances

Chapter 11: Wind and brass instruments

PDFPNG11.1Vibration of air in a pipe
PDFPNG11.2Wavelength of a standing wave
PDFPNG11.3Vibration of air in an open-ended pipe
PDFPNG11.4Standing wave in an open pipe
PDFPNGNodes and antinodes
PDFPNG11.5Modes of vibration of a pipe
PDFPNG11.6Frequency spectrum of a flute note
PDFPNG11.8Vibration in a pipe closed at one end
PDFPNG11.9Standing wave in a closed pipe
PDFPNG11.10Modes in a closed pipe
PDFPNG11.11Frequency spectrum of a clarinet
PDFPNGSquare pipe
PDFPNGConical pipe
PDFPNG11.12Frequency spectrum of a saxophone
PDFPNGBessel horn
PDFPNGCone segment
PDFPNG11.13Pressure in a conical pipe
PDFPNG11.14Tone production in a recorder
PDFPNG11.15Jet-drive mechanism
PDFPNG11.16Bernoulli's principle
PDFPNG11.17Geometry of air jet
PDFPNG11.18Interior of an organ pipe
PDFPNG11.19Types of organ pipes
JPEG11.20Pipe organ
JPEG11.21Organ console
PDFPNG11.22Air velocity of an oscillating jet
PDFPNG11.23Harmonics generated by an oscillating jet
PDFPNGTone holes on a recorder
JPEGAlto recorder
PDFPNG11.24Sound pressure in a pipe with a tone hole
PDFPNG11.25Fingerings on the recorder
PDFPNG11.27Clarinet mouthpiece
PDFPNG11.28Airflow in a reed instrument
PDFPNGClarinet mouthpiece (labeled)
PDFPNG11.30The double reed of an oboe
PDFPNG11.31Spectra of oboe and saxophone
PDFPNG11.32Straight bugle
PDFPNG11.33Shapes of Bessel horns
PDFPNG11.34Motion of the lips when playing trumpet
PDFPNG11.35Slide trombone
PDFPNG11.36Notes on the tenor trombone
PDFPNG11.37Diagram of a trumpet
PDFPNG11.38Notes on trumpet
PDFPNG11.39Tuning on the trumpet

Chapter 12: The voice

PDFPNG12.1Vibration modesJohn Megahan
PDFPNG12.2Vocal ranges
PDFPNG12.3Harmonics of loud and soft notes
PDFPNG12.4Tongue placement
PDFPNG12.6Creation of formants
PDFPNG12.7Formant frequencies
PDFPNGDamped sine wave
PDFPNG12.8Broad resonance peaks

Chapter 13: Percussion

PDFPNG13.2Xylophone bars
PDFPNG13.3Vibration modes
PDFPNG13.4Spectrum of xylophone and marimba
PDFPNG13.5Bar segment
PDFPNG13.6Graphical solution
PDFPNG13.7Striking position
PDFPNG13.9Glockenspiel waveform
PDFPNG13.11Tremolo mechanism
JPEG13.12Orchestral chimes
PDFPNG13.13Church bell
PDFPNG13.14Bell mode
PDFPNGBell overtones
PDFPNGSix bell notes
PDFPNGCambridge Quarters
PDFPNGChanges on six bells
JPEG13.16Carillon console
PDFPNG13.18Steelpan arrangement
PDFPNG13.20Two drum modes
PDFPNG13.2112 drum modes
PDFPNG13.2210 drum modes
PDFPNGDrum head element
PDFPNG13.23Modes of a square drum
PDFPNGPolar coordinates
PDFPNG13.24Bessel function
PDFPNGIsospectral drums
PDFPNG13.25Cymbal modes
PDFPNG13.26Cymbal strokes
JPEGGamelan gongs

Chapter 14: Electric instruments and the electric guitar

JPEGHollow-body guitar
PDFPNG14.1Guitar pickup
PDFPNG14.2Guitar diagram
JPEG14.3Guitar amplifier
PDFPNG14.4Clipping and distortion
PDFPNGVacuum tube
PDFPNG14.5Harmonics of distorted note
PDFPNG14.6Distortion and signal strength
JPEG14.7Amplifer controls
PDFPNG14.8Overdriven note
PDFPNG14.9Intermodulation distortion
PDFPNGPower chord
PDFPNGPower chord
JPEGGuitar effects
PDFPNG14.10Charge separation
PDFPNG14.11Piezoelectric effect
PDFPNG14.13Rhodes mechanism
PDFPNG14.14Rhodes modes
PDFPNG14.15Rhodes waveform
PDFPNG14.16Rhodes spectrum
JPEG14.17Wurlitzer pianoJeremy Edwards
PDFPNG14.18Graphical solution
PDFPNG14.19Clavinet mechanism
JPEG14.20Hammond organ
PDFPNG14.22Hammond waveform
PDFPNG14.23Hammond wiring
PDFPNGLeslie cabinet
PDFPNG14.25Leslie mechanism
PDFPNG14.26Doppler effect

Chapter 15: Electronic instruments and synthesizers

PDFPNG15.1Oscillator circuit
PDFPNG15.2Oscillator waveform
JPEG15.4Moog synthesizer
PDFPNG15.5Synthesizer schematic
PDFPNG15.6Amplitude envelope
PDFPNG15.7Example envelopes
JPEG15.8Prophet-10 synthesizer
JPEGYamaha DX7
PDFPNG15.9Frequency modulation
PDFPNG15.10Frequency modulation
PDFPNG15.11Frequency modulation
PDFPNG15.12Frequency modulation
PDFPNG15.13Keyboard zones
PDFPNG15.14Transient and loop
PDFPNG15.15D'Alembert's solution
PDFPNG15.16Motion of a plucked string
PDFPNG15.17Delay line with feedback
PDFPNG15.18Feedback and attenuation
PDFPNG15.19Karplus-Strong algorithm