First we will examine more information about the Russell's viper. The habitat consists mainly of grassy areas in southeast Asia including India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan,  Myanmar and Taiwan. 


There are two times during the year when the number of bites increase, these correspond with the times when the rice fields are being planted and harvested. Because the snakes live in the rice fields, many of the farmers are bitten and their rural location hinders them from seeking immediate medical attention. In fact it is often as long as five hours before the victim can reach a medical facility.


                Russell's viper captured [3]                                        Fangs of a Russell's viper from Sri Lanka. [4]

Russell's viper can grow to lengths of 1.8 meters and while sluggish most of the time, the snake will strike and hold on when objects come into effective biting range. Once the snake has bitten, it delivers up to 112 mg of venom and the effects begin. As soon as ten minutes after the bite the victim may feel pain, and death can occur in as little as 2.5.


The venom produces many symptoms within the victim such as tenderness and swelling at the bite area, blistering, systematic bleeding and kidney failure. The severity of the symptoms depend on the age and the size of the victim.


Swelling and blistering 24 hours after a Russell's viper bite in Sri Lanka [5]

The Table below shows the percentages of patients with each symptom, in a study in Myanmar. [6]

Symptom Percentage of Patients
Death 9
Kidney Failure 29
Blood Incoagubility 59
Local Swelling at site of bite 73

The most devastating effects of the venom, however, act on the blood clotting mechanism, which has serious implications for kidney function. Of a group of 45 people who received dialysis, 14 died. We will attempt to model the effects of the venom in order to best determine when dialysis is necessary and how long to continue with dialysis.


From the table above, it is possible to see trends between between the p\patients who died, and the patients who recovered. On average, the patients who died had higher levels of urea in the blood, higher levels of creatinine and received less dialysis. Therefore, if it is possible to predict the damage done by the venom upon admission, it may be possible to act early and prevent the death of the patient.