The Jacobite Rebellions were in favor of restoring the Stuarts (or the Pretender) to the Throne. Finally defeated at Culloden in 1746, these rebellions nonetheless set the political and religious precedence for the 18th century. After the defeat of James II by William of Orange during the Glorious Revolution in 1688, the threat of Catholicism returning to the throne was still very real to those like Jonathan Swift, who was believed to be a Jacobite because he was such a religious Tory. Swift was greatly opposed to William III, because he held him responsible for the Protestant Revolution and the new precedence of Whigs in the government. A Jacobite was likely an insulting name for those who supported the Stuart throne, and the name comes from a biblical reference about Jacob being smuggled into the palace as a Prince (as many believed happened with the King). These rebellions were frequently raised during the first half of the 18th century and were the cause of many fears that invoked much of the religious satire of that century. Methodism was partly mocked because it was feared that Methodists were Papists and Jacobites in disguise. Also, the fanaticism attributed to Methodism reminded many of Catholic fanaticism. In Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones, Tom says that "popish priests are not to be believed" and that the Protestant religion was worth fighting for.

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