Ashton, T.S. An Economic History of England: The 18th Century. London: Methuen &Co. LTD, 1955.
This book offers much information about the Royal Mint and the coin shortage problem in the eighteenth century. It also provides information about the history and rise of banks. There is copious amounts of data concerning minting and banking that proved very useful.

Bank of England, The "Over Three Hundred Years of the of England," 2003. Accessed on 12/2003. (

This website, hosted by the Bank of England, provides useful facts about the founding of the bank. It also has information on the phenomena of forgery and inflation in the eighteenth century.

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "U.S./U.K Foreign Exchange Rate" GPO: 2003 Accessed on 12/2003. (

This document on US-UK exchange rates from 1971 to 2003 allowed us to convert between dollars and pounds in the currency calculator.

Clarke, William. The connexion of the Roman, Saxon and English Coins, deduced from observations on the Saxon weights and money. London: William Bowyer, 1767.

This primary source details the origins of British money, beginning with the oldest coins available. He offers discourse and evidence of Saxon money beginning in the 8th century B.C. Perhaps the most helpful portion of this book is the section that compares this ancient money to eighteenth century money in both terms and relative value.

Cottrell, Phil. "Banking and Finanace," Electronic Atlas of Industrializing Britain, 2003. (

This website "chapter," offered much information on the origin and evolution of banks in eighteenth century England. The chapter also gives a broad overview of the history of British banking.

Daunton, M.J. Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain 1700-1850. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Daunton offers a comprehensive look at many aspects of economics and society in Britain from 1700-1850. His research is deep, delving into the factual aspects of the time period and frequently drawing new and interesting conclusions from his data.

Elks, Ken. "The Coinage of Britain," 2000. Accessed on 11/2003. (

This website provides a comprehensive overview of British coinage, beginning with the early centuries A.D. and continuing through to today. The site has images of many of the coins from each century, along with text explaining the historical and political events surrounding coinage.

Equiano, Olaudah. The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings. Edited by V. Carretta. London: Penguin Books Ltd., 2003.

The information gained from this book came Carretta's introduction, not Equiano's original work. Carretta offers a succinct and informative discourse on the relative worth of coins in eighteenth century England.

Finkelstein, Andrea. Harmony and the Balance: An Intellectual History of Seventeenth-Century English Economic Thought. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.

Georgian Index, "Banking in England," 2003. Accessed on 11/2003. (

This rich site provided an overview of early British banking. Many facts about the Bank of England were compiled here, as well as information about the various "original" British banks.

Hans, Nicholas. New Trends in Education in the Eighteenth Century. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, 1951.

A wealth of information about all types of schools during the eighteenth century. The book focuses on changing trends during the time period, but it addresses old conventions as well. Much of the data behind the research is included, and many individual schools and persons are examined.

House of Commons Library. "Inflation: The Value of the Pound 1750-1998." London: GPO, 1999.

A research paper written by Robert Twigger on the changes of the value of the British pound since 1750. This research was critical for developing our currency calculator.

Leake, Stephen Martin. An historical account of English money, from the conquest, to the present time; including those of Scotland, from the union of the two Kingdoms in King James I. London: W. Meadows, 1745.

Leake offers acomprehensive overview of coinage from the reign of William the Conqueror, whose reign begin in 1066, to King George II, whose reign ended in 1727. The coins of each period are explain in great detail. There is also data of the pounds of silver and gold minted each year by the Royal Mint. One of the most helpful aspects of this book was Leake's description of the current coin shortage in his own time and its effects on the English people.

Martin, Christopher. A Short History of English Schools. East Sussex: Wayland Publishers Limited, 1979.

An overview of schooling in England, focusing on middle-class and lower class education. Most of the book focuses on 1750 and beyond, with only a brief section on the eighteenth century, but there is some useful information in this section.

Nationmaster, s.v. "Isaac Newton" and "Pounds-sterling,"accessed on 12/2003. (

This website was created by Rapid Intelligence Pty Ltd, an online publishing company based in Sydney. All of the information is cited to reliable sources. It proved to be a very valuable reference in uncovering historical facts.

Price, Richard. British Society 1680-1880. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Price offers a comprehensive overview of economics in relation to British society. His book is very informative in viewing the rise of banks and financial institutions in terms of the growing international trade. It provides many details about the forces behind the England's evolving economy.

The Royal Bank of Scotland Group, "A History of Banking," 2003. Accessed on 11/2003. (

This website, which is mantained by The Royal Bank of Schotland, contains a very informative section on the "brith of British banking." There are several images on the site which proved valuable to this research.

Sahr, Robert. "Inflation Convertion Factors for Dollars 1665 to Estimated 2013," 2003. Accessed on 12/2003. (

This research on adjusting dollar amounts based on inflation was useful for our calculator to take 1998 values and convert to 2003 values.

Smith, N.J. Poverty in England 1601-1936. London: David and Charles Limited, 1972.

Smith has collected a variety of primary-source materials under the general theme of poverty in England from 1600 to 1936. Sources mostly look at the lifestyles of the poor, public reaction to poverty, and various institutions created to deal with problems of poverty.
Waller, Maureen. 1700: Scenes from London Life. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 2000.
Waller takes a look at social life in London during the eighteenth century. She draws heavily from primary source material and gives a good feel for the flavor of the period.

Wikipedia, s.v. "1736," accessed 11/2003. (

Wikipedia is a free on-line encyclopedia that is non-protected. It is a project that allows users to edit the article. This project was started on January 15, 2001 and currently contains 178,729 articles written in English.