Encyclopedia Brittanica  posted at:

   An excellent resource describing fairs and festivals in their relation to the blooming popular circus culture in 18th Century England.  Also, this source gave a deep historical background on the formation of the first conglomerates of entertainment which we now know as the circus.

Golby, J.M. and Purdue, A.W.  The Civilisation of the Crowd: Popular Culture in England 1750-1900  Schock Books: New York, 1985.

   This relates economics to the formation of fairs and festivals and their transformation from a business oriented affair to an exclusively entertaining world of merriment in 18th Century England

Hayes, Tom.  The Birth of Popular Culture  Duquene University Press: Pittsburgh, 1992.

   This book explains the role of festivals, fairs, and the role of drama in forming popular culture that captured the sentiment of customs native  in England.

Judge, Ray.  The Jack In The Green: A May Day Custom. Littlefield, NJ: D.S                        Brewer, 1979.

   This book had a series of May-Day poems and songs spanning throughout over four hundred years of May Day celebration.

Knightly, Charles. The Customs and Ceremonies of Britain.  London: Thames   and  Hudson, 1986.

   This book had information regarding the games and activities played at during May-Day and other British celebrations in Great Britain from the Middle Ages through the 19th Century.

Morgan, Llywelyn.  Druids.  New York: Ivy Books, 1991.

    This had historical background on the origins of May-Day.  It also dealt with the Druids history of decorating of trees and the May pole.  It discussed how certain holidays like May-Day trickled down through time and how they were dealt with, i.e. the banning of certain Druid customs, like May-Day in 1644. 

Perry, Caroline.  Celts Celebration.  Toronto: Kids Can Press, 1987.

    Celts Celebration had historical background information on the origins of May-Day. 

Rodgers, Pat.  Literature and Popular Culture in Eighteenth Century England.  New Jersey:Barnes and Nobel Books, 1985. 

      Focuses on trends of literature among the middle class.  Specifically in depth on chapbooks and their relation to the classics.

Scott, W. S. Green Retreats: The Story of Vauxhall Gardens. London: Odhams Press. 1955. 

      Narrative account of the history of Vauxhall, complete with newspapers clippings, poems, ballads, and illustrations.

Southworth, James Granville. Vauxhall Gardens. New York: Columbia University Press. 1941.

      Provides a history of the Gardens at Vauxhall along with other tidbits of 18th century social history. The most useful chapter of this text is Chapter 5, "Entertainment."

"The History of Tea,"  The World of Tea. Posted at:

      This useful website provides the history of tea in Asia, Europe, and the United States. It provides well-known information with little-known facts.

"Vauxhall Gardens," The London Ancestor. (No. 1846, Sunday, August 21, 1831).  Reposted at:

      Provides a copy of an authentic 18th century newspaper article about a hot air balloon launching at Vauxhall.

Wroth. London Pleasure Gardens.  London: Macmillan and Co. 1896.

     This source chronicles the evolution of the London pleasure garden from the Islington Spa to the Vauxhall Gardens. The text includes sixty-two pen-and-ink drawings.

Home Page | May-Day  | Popular Literature | Fairs, Festivals, and Freaks | Pleasure Gardens

and Tea Rooms | Bibliography | Credits