Timeline of the Conquest


1492 - Discovery of the Americas

In an attempt to find a westward passage to Asia, Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas. This was the beginning of European settlement and and conquest of the Americas, in which libraries of literature and personal accounts have been created.

1513 - Discovery of the Pacific Ocean

A group of explorers lead by Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean by route of Panama. Coincidentally, the group of explorers included a man named Francisco Pizarro.

1519 - Conquest of Mexico

The other great conquistador who's name is synonymous with the Spanish Conquest is Hernan Cortes. With an expedition of 508 men and 16 horses, they discovered and destroyed the mysterious Aztec civilization.

(Excerpt from Cortes' Second Letter to King Charles V)


1522 - The First Search for Peru

After an unsuccessful attempt to find an indigenous trip on the coats of Columbia, Pascual de Andagoya sold his ships to Fransisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, and Hernando de Luque.


1524 - First Expedition

With only 80 men and 4 horses, Fransisco Pizarro and and Diego de Almagro unsuccessfully attempted to find Peru.


1526 - Second Expedition

This time Pizarro and Almagro were a it more successful. With twice as many men with them, the crossed the equator and intercepted a raft filled with various jewelry and treasure. They kidnapped three of the men on the raft to teach them to be translators.


1528 - Finding the Inca city Tumbez

Pizarro and his group ventured farther south until they reached the well-developed city of Tumbez. For the first time, they had found evidence of a well-developed culture and city.



1530 - Third Expedition

Leaving from Panama, Pizarro and Almagro took 180 men and 37 horses, including Pizarro's brothers; Hernando, Juan, and Gonzalo, all of whom would become somewhat powerful leaders in the new empire.


1532 - Pizarro Makes His First Move

Once Pizarro had the help of reinforcements like Sebastian de Benalcazar and Hernando de Soto, he moved his men south in September. By November, he had reached Cajamarca and they partook in some types of diplomatic activities. The Spanish were hesitant to attack beaus they had only 180 men, and they estimated the Indian troops to be somewhere around 8,00 men deep. Once they began their attack with canons and horses, the Indians became discombobulated rather quickly. Cortes used a tactic used in Mexico to conquer the city, and that was to capture the head of state, Atahualpa. The small number of narratives of these events are intriguing to say the least:

A Spanish Account of the conquering of Tumbez


1533 - Sacking the City of Cuzco

In November of 1533, Pizarro and his army drove into the City of Cuzco, one the largest and wealthiest cities in the Incan Empire; a place filled with the treasures they had been seeking for so long. The Spaniards took over many of the buildings and temples, obtaining the various treasures they had to offer.

A Spanish account of Cuzco



1541 - Death of Francisco Pizarro

Once the Spanish settlers had grown to immense power in South America, there began internal strife among the powerful rulers of the colonial area. Most importantly, Pizarro and his men were at odds with Diego de Almagro. On June 26, 1541, a group of Almagro's men broke into Pizarro's Lima palace, and killed him with their swords and daggers.

An quick account of Pizarro's violent death

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