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This laboratory works on four different developmental problems. We are interested in the early development of neuronal lineages from the embryonic neural crest; which appears transiently during development and which is a source of peripheral nervous system neurons, among many other cell types. We use specific monoclonal antibodies and no-flow cytometry to isolate neural crest subpopulations. We also study the role of the neurofibromatosis I gene (a tumor suppressor gene) in neural crest development and neuronal/ melanocyte/Schwann cell lineage specification and apoptosis, using mouse embryonic stem cells. An additional line of research examines the role of the embryonic hindbrain, periotic mesenchyme and neural crest in shaping inner ear development and the roles of transcription factor and growth factor genes (e.g. BMPs) and their antagonists, such as Noggin, Chordin and DAN, in axis formation and development of the embryonic otocyst. We examine these issues in four model systems: chick/quail; mouse/ immortalized inner ear cell lines from the Immortomouse and the zebrafish.

Representative Publications:

  1. Roth, T.M., Ramamurthy, P., Ebisu, F., Lisak, R.P., Bealmear, B.M., Barald, K.F., (2007). A mouse embryonic stem cell model of Schwann cell differentiation for studies of the role of neurofibromatosis type 1 in Schwann cell development and tumor formation. Glia 55:1123-1133.

  2. Torisawa, Y.S., Chueh, B.H., Huh, D., Ramamurthy, P., Roth, T.M., Barald, K.F., Takayama, S. (2007). Efficient formation of uniform-sized embryoid bodies using a compartmentalized microchannel device. Lab on a Chip 7:770-776.

  3. Wilson, A.L., Shen, Y.C., Babb-Clendenon, S.G., Rostedt, J., Liu, B., Barald, K/F., Marrs, J.A., Liu, Q. (2007). Cadherin-4 plays a role in the development of zebrafish cranial ganglia and lateral line system. Developmental Dynamics 236:893-902.

  4. Blauwkamp, M.N., Beyer, L.A., Kabara, L., Takemure, K., Buck, T., King, W.M., Dolan, D.F., Barald, K.F., Raphael, Y., Koenig, R.J. (2007). The role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 in inner ear development and function. Hearing Research 225:71-79.

  5. Babb-Clendenon, S., Shen, Y.C., Liu, Q, Turner, K.E., Mills, M.S., Cook, G.W., Miller, C.A., Gattone, V.H., 2nd, Barald, K.F., Marrs, J.A. (2006). Cadherin-2 participates in the morphogenesis of the zebrafish inner ear. Journal of Cell Science 119:6169-5177.

  6. Bianchi, L.M., Daruwalla, Z., Roth, T.M., Attia, N.P., Lukacs, N.W., Richards, A.L., White, I.O., Allen, S.J., Barald, K.F. (2005). Immortalized mouse inner ear cell lines demonstrate a role for chemokines in promoting the growth of developing statoacoustic ganglion neurons. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 6:355-367.

  7. Germiller, J.A., Smiley, E.C., Ellis, A.D., Hoff, J.S., Deshmukh, I., Allen, S.J., Barald, K.F. (2004). Molecular characterization of conditionally immortalized cell lines derived from mouse early embryonic inner ear. Developmental Dynamics 231: 815-827.

  8. Barald, K.F. and Kelley, M.W. (2004). From Placode to Polarization: New Tunes in Inner Ear Development. Development. 131:4119-4130.

  9. Gerlach-Bank, L.M., Cleveland, A.R. and Barald, K.F. (2004). DAN directs endolymphatic sac and duct outgrowth in the avian inner ear. Developmental Dynamics. 229: 219-230

  10. Thompson, D., Gerlach-Bank, L.M., Barald, K.F. and Koenig, R.J. (2003). Retinoic Acid Repression of BMP4 in Inner Ear Development. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 23: 2277-2286.

  11. Warner, S.J., Hutson, M.H., Oh, S.-H., Gerlach-Bank, L.M., Lomax, M.I. and Barald, K.F (2003). Expression of ZIC Genes in the Development of the Chick Inner Ear and Nervous System. Developmental Dynamics 226: 702-711.

  12. Gerlach-Bank, L.M., Ellis, A.D., Noonen, B. and Barald, K.F. (2002). Cloning and expression analysis of the chick DAN gene, an antagonist of the BMP family of growth factors. Developmental Dynamics 224: 109-115.

  13. Gerlach, L.M., Hutson, M.R., Germiller, J.A., Nguyen-Luu, D., Barald, K.F. (2000). Addition of the BMP4 antagonist, noggin disrupts avian inner ear development. Development 127: 45-54.

  14. Hutson, M.R., Lewis, J.E., Nguyen-Luu, D., Lindberg, K.H., Barald, K.F. (1999). Expression of Pax-2 and patterning of chick inner ear. Journal of Neurocytology 11:795-807

  15. Fritzsch, B., Barald, K.F. and Lomax, M.I. (1997). Early embryology of the vertebrate ear. In Rubel, E.W., Popper, A.N. and Fay, R.R., eds Development of the Auditory System. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. pp. 80-145.

  16. Barald, K.F., Lindberg, K.H., Hardiman, K., Kavka, A.I., Lewis, J.E., Victor, J.C., Gardner, C.A., Poniatowski, A. (1997). Immortalized cell lines from embryonic avian and murine otocysts: tools for molecular studies of the developing inner ear. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 15:523-40.