1990s AND NOW






AC 213 Website




Arnold, Catherine. "Change-up Pitch." Marketing News 37, no. 21 (2003): 5-12.

This journal article outlines some of the new methods the MLB is using to market to new Latino markets both in the United States and abroad. We used the information regarding the spreading of the game itself more so than the information about how the MLB is trying to sell merchandise to these areas.

Campello, F. L. “Before El Duque there was Luque and Before Robinson there was Estalella.” 2003. http://campello.tripod.com/firstblackinbaseball.html. (accessed December 13, 2006).

This web site provided information on the first Latino managers and coaches in Major League Baseball

Encyclopedia Brittanica Online. “Latin Americans in Major League Baseball.” 2006. http://www.brittanica.com/eb/article-9384936/Latin-Americans-in-Major-League-Beaseball. (accessed December 6, 2006).

This website article, found towards the end of our research, provided information on nearly every generation of Latino baseball and proved a valuable tool for cross-checking our information and gaining some new information as well, especially about the introduction of baseball to Latin America.

ESPN Internet Ventures. “MLB Stats Index.” 2006. http://sports.espn.go.com/mlb/statistics. (accessed December 6, 2006).

The statistical pages within the ESPN.com database gave statistics on Latinos in All Star games, major awards won by Latino players, the expansion of the league from 1961 to 1969, as well as managerial information and Hall of Fame classes by year.

Flores, Angelique. "Flying with the Angels." Hispanic 16, no. 7/8 (2003): 68-69, 70.

This journal article was only used for background information regarding some of the history of Latinos in managerial and ownership positions in Major League Baseball.

Kirkman, Geoffrey. “Latin american baseball-the future of the major leagues.” April 14, 2003. http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/kirkman/tag/baseball/page/3/. (accessed December 6, 2006).

This web log outlined the total salaries of players from each country in Latin America with a representative in Major League Baseball as of 2002.

Latino Baseball Players. 2006. http://www.latino-mlb-players.com/. (accessed November 08, 2006).

This website gives a brief summary of the history of Latino baseball players in the Major Leagues as well as providing information on the current status of Latino players in the Major Leagues and brief biographies of several current Latino "superstars." The site contains such relevant information as the first Latino player in American professional baseball as well as statistics on current levels of Latino players in the Major Leagues.

Latino Legends in Sports. 2006. http://latinosportslegends.com/. (accessed December 6, 2006).

Several of the more famous Latino baseball players were profiled throughout this website, providing much information for the creation of the "Latino Greats" page contained within our website. Also, this website provided statistical information about the number of Latino players from each country at the beginning of the new millenium.

Paniagua, R. I. Latino Baseball. "The History of Latinos in the Major League." 2004. http://latinobaseball.com/mlb-hcountry.html. (accessed November 08, 2006).

This website offers a detailed overview of the history of Latino players in the Major Leagues, outlining such aspects as trends in the number of Latino players from generation to generation as well as providing extensive information on several of the most significant Latino baseball players from each time period. Other sections of this website also delve into the current state of Major League Latino baseball players. We will use information provided by this site about Latinos in baseball during varying time periods extensively throughout our site.

Rodriguez, Roberto. "Before Canseco." Black Issues in Higher Education 13 (April 18, 1996): 18-19.

This journal article outlines the origins of baseball in Latin America as early as the 1860s and details the participation of Latino players in the Negro leagues before becoming prevelant in the Major Leagues. The article also discusses the zeal Latino players exhibited for the game from first exposure in the 1800s. The information on the first introduction to baseball in Latino countries will be vital to this site, as it essentially forms the foundation of the Latino baseball experience.

Wendel, Tim. The new face of baseball: the one-hundred year rise and triumph of Latinos in America's favorite sport. 1st ed. New York: Rayo, 2003.

This book provided some background information about Adolfo Luque and also the early spread of baseball in Cuba.

Wikipedia. “Cuban League.” November 6, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_League#Adjusting_to_change:__1934.E2.80.931961. (accessed December 13, 2006).

This website article detailed the confrontation between the Mexican league and Major League Baseball and described the agreement between the MLB and the Cuban League to allow minor league and new major league players in the U.S. to play winter ball in Cuba.