AMCULT 213 Homepage




Aparicio, Frances R. Listening to Salsa: Gender, Latin Popular Music, and Puerto Rican Culture. London: Wesleyan Press, 1998.
This source provided information on the evolution of Plena to Salsa. Aparicio not only wrote on the music, but the how the migration of Puerto Rico helped shaped the music and how the music was an outlet and form of expression the Puerto Rican people.

Bailyn, Evan. Music of Puerto Rico. []. 2005.
This website is an educational resource published by Evan Bailyn. It was created in order to increase and strengthen relationships with the people of Puerto Rico by appreciating their music, create pride within the Puerto Rican community by the portrayals of their music, and to finally use the site as a sort of dedication to Puerto Rican music. This is achieved by providing detailed information on the various instruments, genres, and popular artists that are within Puerto Rican music. The instruments sub-topic has facts on its derivation and history, physical features, and ways of use. Then each genre is traced back to how it was formed and provides a detailed description of how it has evolved, and by whom it is enjoyed, over time. Finally, the artists section reveals a long list of the well-known Puerto Rican music artists, which provides an extensive bibliography of each individual. Essays on the topic of Puerto Rican music, lyrics for various songs, and multimedia clips are available as well.
This website is of great relevance to our project because of the detailed descriptions of every aspect of Puerto Rican music. It provides a plethora of information of the different genres and its attributions, which is of great aid to our project since our research entails studying music from Puerto Rico as well.

Calderon, Jeanitza Aviles. Bomba e Plena:L'Africania di Portorico. 2001. (accessed November 28, 2006).
This resource gave a lot of detailed information on Bomba and Plena. Calderon was very thorough in explaining the history, the dance, the ways in which they were used, and clothing.

Dance Resources, History of Dances. 2006. Merengue. (accessed December 13, 2006).
This website provided several essays/excerpts written about a wide variety of dance styles by various authors. One such subcategory was the topic of Merengue, which is one of the dominant Dominican Republic music genres. This site gave information on the origins, the dominant instruments, the people who enjoy Merengue, among others.
It was of great help to our project since Merengue is a significant part of Dominican Republic music. Dance Resources gave a lot of detailed, relevant information and was helpful in gathering information on the Merengue dance and music.

Daniel, Yvonne P. “Changing Values in Cuban Rumba, a Lower Class Black Dance Appropriated by the Cuban Revolution.” Dance Research Journal 23, no. 2 (1991) : 1-8.
This article discusses the value of rumba that was once considered a Afro-Cuban dance music but now has become national promoted.

Daniel, Yvonne. Rumba: Dance and Social Change in Contemporary Cuba. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1995.
This book examines the origins and the various forms of rumba by research and first-hand participation. Daniel describes and analyzes rumba, especially the cultural and social influences it has had on Cubans. 

Dominican Republic Index. 1995. Dominican Bachata Music. (accessed December 1, 2006).
This website is of the Dominican Republic Index, having information on a variety of areas in the Dominican Republic. One such area is on music, and a subcategory of the music section is one on the bachata music. The information provided is a synopsis of a published book called "Bachata, A Social History of a Dominican Republic Music" that was published in 1995. It provides a plethora of information regarding the bachata music and dance, such as how the dance is carried out, and how the dance originated.
This is relevant to our topic because of the detailed information about bachata music. It provides a fresh perspective of the book "Bachata, A Social History of a Dominican Republic Music" while providing detailed descriptions about the different aspects of bachata music.

Fernandez, Ronald, Puerto Rico: Past & Present. An Encyclopedia. Hartford, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Fernandez provided information on the Puerto Rican people, history, and culture in encyclopedia form.

Gerard, Charley. Music from Cuba: Mongo Santamaría, Chocolate Armenteros, and Cuban Musicians in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
This book provides history of Cuban music and the impact it had on the United States through influential musicians, such as Mongo Santamaria, Jesus Caunedo, Charanga and Pup Legarreta, Juan Carlos Formell, and Alfredo "Chocolate" Armenteros.

Goldstein, Donna. 2000. Bachata: A Social History of a Dominican Popular Music. (accessed December 2, 2006).
This site was a review of a book titled "Bachata: A Social History of a Dominican Popular Music." This article talks about the book and its findings, including information about the bachata music. It gives a brief history of its origin, the instruments that are dominant in bachata, as well as where and when it is mainly played and enjoyed.
This website is of great relevance to our project because of the detailed information about the bachata music. It gives specific and descriptive information about each of the segments stated above, and is credible because the information is from a published piece of work.

Gonzalez, Juan. Harvest of Empire. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2001.
The articles in this book examine the impact of imperialism and colonization on Latin America and Latin American immigrants in the United States.

Hauberg, Clifford A. The Immigrant Heritage of America Series. New York: Twayne Publishing, 1974.
Hauberg provides a lot of information on the migration of Puerto Ricans from the island to the mainland. There is a good amount of statics and facts in this source.

Infoplease. 2006. Dominican Republic. (accessed December 6, 2006).
This website provides users with a plethora of information about the Dominican Republic- such as population, president, history, monetary unit, etc. It was very help in providing up to date information about the country.
This website is relevant to our project because one of the main countries that we studied was the Dominican Republic.

Jímenez de Wagenheim, Olga, Puerto Rico: An Interpretive History: From Pre-Columbian Times to 1900, (Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1998).
Jímenez de Wagenheim provides a good amount of information on the indigenous people of Puerto Rico. The book also provides information on the "discovery", colonization, and annexation by the United States of Puerto Rico. Salsa History. []. 1999-2004.

Kahl, Willi and Katz, Israel J. “Bolero.” Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy. (accessed November 29, 2006).
Grove Music Online is the online version of a music encyclopedia. This article provides the different forms bolero has taken in various countries.

Knights, Vanessa. “Songs of Creole Identities: The Bolero in the Hispanic Caribbean.” Forum of Modern Language Studies 11, no. 4 (2004) : 389-400.
This articles how the Cuban bolero is a genre influenced by various cultural aspects, similar to the hybrid identity of Cubans.

Leymarie, Isabelle. Cuban Fire: The Story of Salsa and Latin Jazz. New York: Continuum, 2002.
Leymarie tells the story of Cuban music from its beginning in Cuban to its present day form in the United States. Leymarie explains when and how the term “salsa” was coined and how Cubans struggles in trying to keep “salsa” as their own instead of commercializing it to make a profit. Although this book does focus on Cuba, it also includes Puerto Rico and the Dominican and how music from all three islands merged in New York to launch Latin music in the States.

Llich, Tijana. 2006. Profile of Merengue, Music of the Dominican Republic. (accessed December 13, 2006).
This website gives a detailed description on the Merengue genre of Dominican Republic music, however also gives information on the Salve and Gaga. Information on both Salve and Gaga were difficult to locate since it is not as widely enjoyed as the Merengue and Bachata, thus this website was of great assistance for the project. It gave information highlighting when both music is played, as well as where it originated from.

Manuel, Peter. Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae. Philadephia: Temple University Press, 1995.
In Carribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae, Manuel traces Salsa music and dance from its' beginnings in Cuba and Puerto Rico. But he especially focuses on its migration to the states and how it evolved into the sound we know today. There are many historical facts and figures in the source as Manuel also places in the music in a cultural context, allowing the reader to see the how the music has affected the people and what people affected the music.

Manuel, Peter. Popular Musics of the Non-Western World. (New York: Oxford University Press,1988).
Manuel provides information on the instrumentation and dance of salsa.

Morris, Nancy. “Cultural Interaction in Latin American and Caribbean Music.” Latin American Research Review 34, no. 1 (1999) : 187-200.
This article reviews "Music and Black Ethnicity" edited by Gerard H. Behague, "Samba: Resistance in Motion" by Barbara Browning, and "Rumba: Dance and Social Change in Contemporary Cuba" by Yvonne Daniel.

Orvio, Helio. Cuban Music from A to Z. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004.
This book provides general information on Cuban artists and various types of Cuban music, such as the danzón, the rumba, the son, the mambo, the bolero, and the chacha.

Pedraza, Silvia. “Cuba’s Refugees: Manifold Migrations.” In Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in America, Silvia Pedraza and Rubén Rumbaut, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Press, 1996.
This article examines the causes of the four different waves of migration from Cuba.

Rivera, Magaly. 2006. Welcome to Puerto Rico. (accessed November 23, 2006).
This website provided information on the Taino indians on the island of Puerto Rico from Pre-Columbian times to the present. Rivera also provided information on the music and culture of the people and how it evolved over time.

Roy, Maya. Cuban Music. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2002.
This book studies the history of Cuban music and the historical and cultural influences that have shaped it.

Rumbaut, Luis. “Bolero: Romantic Music of Latin America.” Journal of Latin American Arts and Culture (Oct-Dec, 2002), (accessed December 14, 2006).
Online version of a article in a journal that provides a brief history and a description of the various musicians that popularization bolero.

Salsa (dance). (accessed December 7, 2006).
The website provides information on the history, evolution, different types of Salsa dance.

Turner, Misha. 2003. Dominican Republic. (accessed December 12, 2006).
This website is dedicated to providing information on African and world music. One of the subcategories was the music of the Dominican Republic. It provided a general description of the dominant music prevalent in the country, including the merengue, bachata, gaga, and salve, all of which are included in this website.
This website was helpful in providing information on gaga and salve, because it was difficult to locate detailed descriptions on both musical genres. Turner described the instruments involved in gaga and salve, as well as when the music is normally played (during what kind of events).

U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau. The Hispanic Population in the United States: March 2002. Ramirez, Roberto and G. Patricia de la Cruz, compilers. Washington, DC, June 2003.
This report provides graphs and charts of the composition of Latin Americans in the United States by national origin.

Waxer, Lise. “Of Mambo Kings and Songs of Love: Dance Music in Havana and New York from the 1930s to the 1950s.” Latin American Music Review 15, no. 2 (1994) : 139-176.
This article describes the impact of various mambo musicians who appropriated and popularized the genre.

Waxer, Lise. The City of Musical Memory: Salsa, Record Grooves, and Popular Culture in Cali, Colombia. (Middletwon, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 2002).
Waxer provides information on the word 'salsa', what it means to differet people, and how the term came about to describe this new type of music in New York.

Wayne, David. 2006. The History of Bachata. (accessed December 4, 2006).
This website gives a detailed background on the Bachata music genre, as well as provides several sound clips for viewers of the site to hear. It is convenient to have such clips available, since the viewers can actually hear the sounds that David Wayne describes in his article. Wayne writes on how the bachata music has evolved since its beginnings by providing the dominant people and events that aided in its evolution.
This is helpful to our website since Wayne provides a detailed historical background on the bachata. Other websites provided only a brief history, but it was helpful to read and learn from such a detailed article. The website also provides the different versions of bachata that are prominent, which were helpful in understanding the bachata in its entirety.

Yeo, Loo. Salsa & Merengue. []. 1999.



Top of Page



tml>d> tml>